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authorDenys Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>2010-01-13 21:47:12 (GMT)
committer Denys Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>2010-01-13 21:47:12 (GMT)
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
+<head>
+<title>BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux</title>
+<link rev="made" href="mailto:root@quasar.local.net" />
+</head>
+
+<body style="background-color: white">
+
+<p><a name="__index__"></a></p>
+<!-- INDEX BEGIN -->
+<!--
+
+<ul>
+
+ <li><a href="#name">NAME</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#syntax">SYNTAX</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#description">DESCRIPTION</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#usage">USAGE</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#common_options">COMMON OPTIONS</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#commands">COMMANDS</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#command_descriptions">COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#libc_nss">LIBC NSS</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#maintainer">MAINTAINER</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#authors">AUTHORS</a></li>
+</ul>
+-->
+<!-- INDEX END -->
+
+<p>
+</p>
+<h1><a name="name">NAME</a></h1>
+<p>BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="syntax">SYNTAX</a></h1>
+<pre>
+ busybox &lt;applet&gt; [arguments...] # or</pre>
+<pre>
+ &lt;applet&gt; [arguments...] # if symlinked</pre>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="description">DESCRIPTION</a></h1>
+<p>BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single
+small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities
+you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc. The utilities in BusyBox
+generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the
+options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very
+much like their GNU counterparts.</p>
+<p>BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind.
+It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or
+features) at compile time. This makes it easy to customize your embedded
+systems. To create a working system, just add /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.
+BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX environment for any small or embedded
+system.</p>
+<p>BusyBox is extremely configurable. This allows you to include only the
+components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or 'make
+menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable. Then run
+'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.</p>
+<p>After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to install
+BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the target directory
+specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set when configuring BusyBox,
+or you can specify an alternative location at install time (i.e., with a
+command line like 'make CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled
+any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will
+also be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="usage">USAGE</a></h1>
+<p>BusyBox is a multi-call binary. A multi-call binary is an executable program
+that performs the same job as more than one utility program. That means there
+is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single binary acts like a large
+number of utilities. This allows BusyBox to be smaller since all the built-in
+utility programs (we call them applets) can share code for many common
+operations.</p>
+<p>You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the
+command line. For example, entering</p>
+<pre>
+ /bin/busybox ls</pre>
+<p>will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.</p>
+<p>Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful. So most
+people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.</p>
+<p>For example, entering</p>
+<pre>
+ ln -s /bin/busybox ls
+ ./ls</pre>
+<p>will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiled
+into BusyBox). Generally speaking, you should never need to make all these
+links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this for you when you run
+the 'make install' command.</p>
+<p>If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a list of the
+applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="common_options">COMMON OPTIONS</a></h1>
+<p>Most BusyBox applets support the <strong>--help</strong> argument to provide a terse runtime
+description of their behavior. If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has
+been enabled, more detailed usage information will also be available.</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="commands">COMMANDS</a></h1>
+<p>Currently available applets include:</p>
+<pre>
+ [, [[, acpid, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arp, arping, ash,
+ awk, basename, beep, blkid, brctl, bunzip2, bzcat, bzip2, cal, cat,
+ catv, chat, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chpasswd, chpst, chroot,
+ chrt, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp, cpio, crond, crontab,
+ cryptpw, cttyhack, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser,
+ depmod, devmem, df, dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd,
+ dnsdomainname, dos2unix, dpkg, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, echo, ed,
+ egrep, eject, env, envdir, envuidgid, expand, expr, fakeidentd,
+ false, fbset, fbsplash, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, fgrep, find,
+ findfs, flash_eraseall, flash_lock, flash_unlock, flashcp, fold,
+ free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck.minix, fsync, ftpd, ftpget, ftpput,
+ fuser, getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, hd, hdparm, head,
+ hexdump, hostid, hostname, httpd, hush, hwclock, id, ifconfig,
+ ifenslave, ifplugd, inetd, init, inotifyd, insmod, install, ionice,
+ ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iprule, iptunnel,
+ kbd_mode, kill, killall, killall5, klogd, last, length, less,
+ linux32, linux64, linuxrc, ln, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login,
+ logname, logread, losetup, lpd, lpq, lpr, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lspci,
+ lsusb, lzmacat, lzop, lzopcat, makedevs, makemime, man, md5sum,
+ mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mkdosfs, mke2fs, mkfifo, mkfs.ext2,
+ mkfs.minix, mkfs.reiser, mkfs.vfat, mknod, mkpasswd, mkswap, mktemp,
+ modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat,
+ nice, nmeter, nohup, ntpd, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pgrep, pidof,
+ ping, ping6, pipe_progress, pivot_root, pkill, popmaildir, poweroff,
+ printenv, printf, ps, pscan, pwd, raidautorun, rdate, rdev,
+ readlink, readprofile, realpath, reboot, reformime, renice, reset,
+ resize, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, rtcwake, run-parts,
+ runlevel, runsv, runsvdir, rx, script, scriptreplay, sed, sendmail,
+ seq, setarch, setconsole, setfont, setkeycodes, setlogcons, setsid,
+ setuidgid, sh, sha1sum, sha256sum, sha512sum, showkey, slattach,
+ sleep, softlimit, sort, split, start-stop-daemon, stat, strings,
+ stty, su, sulogin, sum, sv, svlogd, swapoff, swapon, switch_root,
+ sync, sysctl, syslogd, tac, tail, tar, taskset, tcpsvd, tee, telnet,
+ telnetd, test, tftp, tftpd, time, timeout, top, touch, tr,
+ traceroute, traceroute6, true, tty, ttysize, tunctl, tune2fs,
+ udhcpc, udhcpd, udpsvd, umount, uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq,
+ unix2dos, unlzma, unlzop, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode,
+ vconfig, vi, vlock, volname, wall, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which,
+ who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip</pre>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="command_descriptions">COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS</a></h1>
+<dl>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_acpid"><strong>acpid</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+acpid [-d] [-c CONFDIR] [-l LOGFILE] [-e PROC_EVENT_FILE] [EVDEV_EVENT_FILE...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Listen to ACPI events and spawn specific helpers on event arrival</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Don't daemonize, log to stderr
+ -c DIR Config directory [/etc/acpi]
+ -e FILE /proc event file [/proc/acpi/event]
+ -l FILE Log file [/var/log/acpid]</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Accept and ignore compatibility options -g -m -s -S -v</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_addgroup"><strong>addgroup</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+addgroup [-g GID] [user_name] group_name
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Add a group or add a user to a group</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -g GID Group id
+ -S Create a system group</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_adduser"><strong>adduser</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+adduser [OPTIONS] user_name
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Add a user</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -h DIR Home directory
+ -g GECOS GECOS field
+ -s SHELL Login shell
+ -G GRP Add user to existing group
+ -S Create a system user
+ -D Don't assign a password
+ -H Don't create home directory
+ -u UID User id</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_adjtimex"><strong>adjtimex</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+adjtimex [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t tick]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See adjtimex(2).</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -q Quiet
+ -o offset Time offset, microseconds
+ -f frequency Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
+ (positive values make clock run faster)
+ -t tick Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
+ -p timeconstant</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ar"><strong>ar</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Extract or list FILES from an ar archive</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -o Preserve original dates
+ -p Extract to stdout
+ -t List
+ -x Extract
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_arp"><strong>arp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>arp
+<tr><td>[-vn]<td>[-H type] [-i if] -a [hostname]
+<tr><td>[-v]<td> [-i if] -d hostname [pub]
+<tr><td>[-v]<td>[-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [temp]
+<tr><td>[-v]<td>[-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [netmask nm] pub
+<tr><td>[-v]<td>[-H type] [-i if] -Ds hostname ifa [netmask nm] pub</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Manipulate ARP cache</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Display (all) hosts
+ -s Set new ARP entry
+ -d Delete a specified entry
+ -v Verbose
+ -n Don't resolve names
+ -i IF Network interface
+ -D Read &lt;hwaddr&gt; from given device
+ -A, -p AF Protocol family
+ -H HWTYPE Hardware address type</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_arping"><strong>arping</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+arping [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-I dev] [-s sender] target
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send ARP requests/replies</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Quit on first ARP reply
+ -q Quiet
+ -b Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
+ -D Duplicated address detection mode
+ -U Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
+ -A ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
+ -c N Stop after sending N ARP requests
+ -w timeout Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds
+ -I dev Interface to use (default eth0)
+ -s sender Sender IP address
+ target Target IP address</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_awk"><strong>awk</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+awk [OPTIONS] [AWK_PROGRAM] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v VAR=VAL Set variable
+ -F SEP Use SEP as field separator
+ -f FILE Read program from FILE</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_basename"><strong>basename</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+basename FILE [SUFFIX]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Strip directory path and .SUFFIX from FILE</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_beep"><strong>beep</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+beep -f FREQ -l LEN -d DELAY -r COUNT -n
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Frequency in Hz
+ -l Length in ms
+ -d Delay in ms
+ -r Repetitions
+ -n Start new tone</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_blkid"><strong>blkid</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+blkid
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print UUIDs of all filesystems</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_brctl"><strong>brctl</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+brctl COMMAND [BRIDGE [INTERFACE]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Manage ethernet bridges</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Commands:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ show Show a list of bridges
+ addbr BRIDGE Create BRIDGE
+ delbr BRIDGE Delete BRIDGE
+ addif BRIDGE IFACE Add IFACE to BRIDGE
+ delif BRIDGE IFACE Delete IFACE from BRIDGE
+ setageing BRIDGE TIME Set ageing time
+ setfd BRIDGE TIME Set bridge forward delay
+ sethello BRIDGE TIME Set hello time
+ setmaxage BRIDGE TIME Set max message age
+ setpathcost BRIDGE COST Set path cost
+ setportprio BRIDGE PRIO Set port priority
+ setbridgeprio BRIDGE PRIO Set bridge priority
+ stp BRIDGE [1|0] STP on/off</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_bunzip2"><strong>bunzip2</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+bunzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress FILE (or standard input)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -f Force</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_bzcat"><strong>bzcat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+bzcat FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_bzip2"><strong>bzip2</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+bzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Compress FILEs (or standard input) with bzip2 algorithm.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -d Decompress
+ -f Force
+ -1..-9 Compression level</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cal"><strong>cal</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cal [-jy] [[month] year]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display a calendar</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -j Use julian dates
+ -y Display the entire year</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cat"><strong>cat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cat [-u] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Concatenate FILEs and print them to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u Use unbuffered i/o (ignored)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_catv"><strong>catv</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+catv [-etv] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -e End each line with $
+ -t Show tabs as ^I
+ -v Don't use ^x or M-x escapes</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chat"><strong>chat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chat EXPECT [SEND [EXPECT [SEND...]]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout.
+A script consists of one or more ``expect-send'' pairs of strings,
+each pair is a pair of arguments. Example:
+chat '' ATZ OK ATD123456 CONNECT '' ogin: pppuser word: ppppass '~'</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chattr"><strong>chattr</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chattr [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v VERSION] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change file attributes on an ext2 fs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Modifiers:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ - Remove attributes
+ + Add attributes
+ = Set attributes
+Attributes:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ A Don't track atime
+ a Append mode only
+ c Enable compress
+ D Write dir contents synchronously
+ d Don't backup with dump
+ i Cannot be modified (immutable)
+ j Write all data to journal first
+ s Zero disk storage when deleted
+ S Write file contents synchronously
+ t Disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files
+ u Allow file to be undeleted
+Options:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -R Recursively list subdirectories
+ -v Set the file's version/generation number</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chgrp"><strong>chgrp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -R Recurse
+ -h Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
+ -L Traverse all symlinks to directories
+ -H Traverse symlinks on command line only
+ -P Don't traverse symlinks (default)
+ -c List changed files
+ -v Verbose
+ -f Hide errors</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chmod"><strong>chmod</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the
+symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -R Recurse
+ -c List changed files
+ -v List all files
+ -f Hide errors</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chown"><strong>chown</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chown [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[&lt;.|:&gt;[GROUP]] FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -R Recurse
+ -h Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
+ -L Traverse all symlinks to directories
+ -H Traverse symlinks on command line only
+ -P Don't traverse symlinks (default)
+ -c List changed files
+ -v List all files
+ -f Hide errors</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chpasswd"><strong>chpasswd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chpasswd [--md5|--encrypted]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Read user:password from stdin and update /etc/passwd</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -e,--encrypted Supplied passwords are in encrypted form
+ -m,--md5 Use MD5 encryption instead of DES</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chpst"><strong>chpst</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>chpst [-vP012] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-U USER[:GRP]] [-e DIR]
+<tr><td><td>[-/ DIR] [-n NICE] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-o N]
+<tr><td><td>[-p N] [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] PROG ARGS</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change the process state and run PROG</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u USER[:GRP] Set uid and gid
+ -U USER[:GRP] Set $UID and $GID in environment
+ -e DIR Set environment variables as specified by files
+ in DIR: file=1st_line_of_file
+ -/ DIR Chroot to DIR
+ -n NICE Add NICE to nice value
+ -m BYTES Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES
+ -d BYTES Limit data segment
+ -o N Limit number of open files per process
+ -p N Limit number of processes per uid
+ -f BYTES Limit output file sizes
+ -c BYTES Limit core file size
+ -v Verbose
+ -P Create new process group
+ -0 Close standard input
+ -1 Close standard output
+ -2 Close standard error</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chroot"><strong>chroot</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chroot NEWROOT [PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG with root directory set to NEWROOT</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chrt"><strong>chrt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chrt [OPTIONS] [PRIO] [PID | PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Manipulate real-time attributes of a process</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p Operate on pid
+ -r Set scheduling policy to SCHED_RR
+ -f Set scheduling policy to SCHED_FIFO
+ -o Set scheduling policy to SCHED_OTHER
+ -m Show min and max priorities</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_chvt"><strong>chvt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+chvt N
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cksum"><strong>cksum</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cksum FILES...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILES</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_clear"><strong>clear</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+clear
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Clear screen</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cmp"><strong>cmp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
+ for all differing bytes
+ -s Quiet</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_comm"><strong>comm</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+comm [-123] FILE1 FILE2
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Compare FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if - is specified</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -1 Suppress lines unique to FILE1
+ -2 Suppress lines unique to FILE2
+ -3 Suppress lines common to both files</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cp"><strong>cp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cp [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple <code>SOURCE(s)</code> to DIRECTORY</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Same as -dpR
+ -d,-P Preserve links
+ -H,-L Dereference all symlinks (default)
+ -p Preserve file attributes if possible
+ -f Force overwrite
+ -i Prompt before overwrite
+ -R,-r Recurse
+ -l,-s Create (sym)links</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cpio"><strong>cpio</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cpio [-dmvu] [-F FILE] [-H newc] [-tio] [-p DIR]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Extract or list files from a cpio archive, or
+create an archive (-o) or copy files (-p) using file list on standard input</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Main operation mode:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -t List
+ -i Extract
+ -o Create (requires -H newc)
+ -p DIR Copy files to DIR
+Options:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Make leading directories
+ -m Preserve mtime
+ -v Verbose
+ -u Overwrite
+ -F FILE Input (-t,-i,-p) or output (-o) file
+ -H newc Archive format</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_crond"><strong>crond</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+crond -fbS -l N -d N -L LOGFILE -c DIR
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Foreground
+ -b Background (default)
+ -S Log to syslog (default)
+ -l Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
+ -d Set log level, log to stderr
+ -L Log to file
+ -c Working dir</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_crontab"><strong>crontab</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+crontab [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Crontab directory
+ -u User
+ -l List crontab
+ -e Edit crontab
+ -r Delete crontab
+ FILE Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cryptpw"><strong>cryptpw</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cryptpw [OPTIONS] [PASSWORD] [SALT]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Crypt the PASSWORD using <code>crypt(3)</code></p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -P,--password-fd=N Read password from fd N
+ -m,--method=TYPE Encryption method TYPE
+ -S,--salt=SALT</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_cut"><strong>cut</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print selected fields from each input FILE to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
+ -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
+ -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
+ -s Output only the lines containing delimiter
+ -f N Print only these fields
+ -n Ignored</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_date"><strong>date</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+date [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display time (using +FMT), or set time</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ [-s,--set] TIME Set time to TIME
+ -u,--utc Work in UTC (don't convert to local time)
+ -R,--rfc-2822 Output RFC-2822 compliant date string
+ -I[SPEC] Output ISO-8601 compliant date string
+ SPEC='date' (default) for date only,
+ 'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
+ time to the indicated precision
+ -r,--reference FILE Display last modification time of FILE
+ -d,--date TIME Display TIME, not 'now'
+ -D FMT Use FMT for -d TIME conversion</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Recognized TIME formats:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ hh:mm[:ss]
+ [YYYY.]MM.DD-hh:mm[:ss]
+ YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]
+ [[[[[YY]YY]MM]DD]hh]mm[.ss]</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dc"><strong>dc</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dc expression...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Tiny RPN calculator. Operations:
++, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and, or, not, eor,
+p - print top of the stack (without altering the stack),
+f - print entire stack, o - pop the value and set output radix
+(value must be 10 or 16).
+Examples: 'dc 2 2 add' -&gt; 4, 'dc 8 8 * 2 2 + /' -&gt; 16.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dd"><strong>dd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]
+<tr><td><td>[seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync]</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Copy a file with converting and formatting</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ if=FILE Read from FILE instead of stdin
+ of=FILE Write to FILE instead of stdout
+ bs=N Read and write N bytes at a time
+ ibs=N Read N bytes at a time
+ obs=N Write N bytes at a time
+ count=N Copy only N input blocks
+ skip=N Skip N input blocks
+ seek=N Skip N output blocks
+ conv=notrunc Don't truncate output file
+ conv=noerror Continue after read errors
+ conv=sync Pad blocks with zeros
+ conv=fsync Physically write data out before finishing</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024),
+MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824)</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_deallocvt"><strong>deallocvt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+deallocvt [N]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_delgroup"><strong>delgroup</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+delgroup [USER] GROUP
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Delete group GROUP from the system or user USER from group GROUP</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_deluser"><strong>deluser</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+deluser USER
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Delete USER from the system</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_devmem"><strong>devmem</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+devmem ADDRESS [WIDTH [VALUE]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Read/write from physical address</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ ADDRESS Address to act upon
+ WIDTH Width (8/16/...)
+ VALUE Data to be written</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_df"><strong>df</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+df [-Pkmhai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print filesystem usage statistics</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -P POSIX output format
+ -k 1024-byte blocks (default)
+ -m 1M-byte blocks
+ -h Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
+ -a Show all filesystems
+ -i Inodes
+ -B SIZE Blocksize</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dhcprelay"><strong>dhcprelay</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dhcprelay CLIENT_IFACE[,CLIENT_IFACE2...] SERVER_IFACE [SERVER_IP]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Relay DHCP requests between clients and server</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_diff"><strong>diff</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+diff [-abdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1 FILE2
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Compare files line by line and output the differences between them.
+This implementation supports unified diffs only.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Treat all files as text
+ -b Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
+ -d Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
+ -i Ignore case differences
+ -L Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
+ -N Treat absent files as empty
+ -q Output only whether files differ
+ -r Recursively compare subdirectories
+ -S Start with FILE when comparing directories
+ -T Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary
+ -s Report when two files are the same
+ -t Expand tabs to spaces in output
+ -U Output LINES lines of context
+ -w Ignore all whitespace</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dirname"><strong>dirname</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dirname FILENAME
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dmesg"><strong>dmesg</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print or control the kernel ring buffer</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Clear ring buffer after printing
+ -n LEVEL Set console logging level
+ -s SIZE Buffer size</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dnsd"><strong>dnsd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dnsd [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Small static DNS server daemon</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Config filename
+ -t TTL in seconds
+ -p Listening port
+ -i Listening ip (default all)
+ -d Daemonize</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dos2unix"><strong>dos2unix</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dos2unix [OPTIONS] [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Convert FILE in-place from DOS to Unix format.
+When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u dos2unix
+ -d unix2dos</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dpkg"><strong>dpkg</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Install, remove and manage Debian packages</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -i Install the package
+ -l List of installed packages
+ -C Configure an unpackaged package
+ -F depends Ignore dependency problems
+ -P Purge all files of a package
+ -r Remove all but the configuration files for a package
+ -u Unpack a package, but don't configure it</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_du"><strong>du</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.
+Disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Show file sizes too
+ -H Follow symlinks on command line
+ -L Follow all symlinks
+ -d N Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth &lt; N
+ -c Show grand total
+ -l Count sizes many times if hard linked
+ -s Display only a total for each argument
+ -x Skip directories on different filesystems
+ -h Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
+ -m Sizes in megabytes
+ -k Sizes in kilobytes (default)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dumpkmap"><strong>dumpkmap</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dumpkmap &gt; keymap
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print a binary keyboard translation table to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_dumpleases"><strong>dumpleases</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f,--file=FILE Leases file to load
+ -r,--remaining Interpret lease times as time remaining
+ -a,--absolute Interpret lease times as expire time</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_echo"><strong>echo</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+echo [-neE] [ARG...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the specified ARGs to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Suppress trailing newline
+ -e Interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
+ -E Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ed"><strong>ed</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ed
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_eject"><strong>eject</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+eject [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s SCSI device
+ -t Close tray
+ -T Open/close tray (toggle)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_env"><strong>env</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up
+the specified environment</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -, -i Start with an empty environment
+ -u Remove variable from the environment</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_envdir"><strong>envdir</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+envdir dir prog args
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Set various environment variables as specified by files
+in the directory dir and run PROG</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_envuidgid"><strong>envuidgid</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+envuidgid account prog args
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Set $UID to account's uid and $GID to account's gid and run PROG</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_expand"><strong>expand</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+expand [-i] [-t N] [FILE|-]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Convert tabs to spaces, writing to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -i,--initial Don't convert tabs after non blanks
+ -t,--tabs=N Tabstops every N chars</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_expr"><strong>expr</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+expr EXPRESSION
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the value of EXPRESSION to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>EXPRESSION may be:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ ARG1 | ARG2 ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
+ ARG1 &amp; ARG2 ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
+ ARG1 &lt; ARG2 1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
+ ARG1 &lt;= ARG2
+ ARG1 = ARG2
+ ARG1 != ARG2
+ ARG1 &gt;= ARG2
+ ARG1 &gt; ARG2
+ ARG1 + ARG2 Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
+ ARG1 - ARG2
+ ARG1 * ARG2
+ ARG1 / ARG2
+ ARG1 % ARG2
+ STRING : REGEXP Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
+ match STRING REGEXP Same as STRING : REGEXP
+ substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
+ index STRING CHARS Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
+ length STRING Length of STRING
+ quote TOKEN Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
+ it is a keyword like 'match' or an
+ operator like '/'
+ (EXPRESSION) Value of EXPRESSION</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
+Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else
+lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between
+\( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the number
+of characters matched or 0.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fakeidentd"><strong>fakeidentd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Provide fake ident (auth) service</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Run in foreground
+ -i Inetd mode
+ -w Inetd 'wait' mode
+ -b ADDR Bind to specified address
+ STRING Ident answer string (default: nobody)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_false"><strong>false</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+false
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Return an exit code of FALSE (1)</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fbset"><strong>fbset</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fbset [OPTIONS] [MODE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Show and modify frame buffer settings</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fbsplash"><strong>fbsplash</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fbsplash -s IMGFILE [-c] [-d DEV] [-i INIFILE] [-f CMD]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Image
+ -c Hide cursor
+ -d Framebuffer device (default /dev/fb0)
+ -i Config file (var=value):
+ BAR_LEFT,BAR_TOP,BAR_WIDTH,BAR_HEIGHT
+ BAR_R,BAR_G,BAR_B
+ -f Control pipe (else exit after drawing image)
+ commands: 'NN' (% for progress bar) or 'exit'</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fdflush"><strong>fdflush</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fdflush DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fdformat"><strong>fdformat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fdformat [-n] DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Format floppy disk</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Don't verify after format</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fdisk"><strong>fdisk</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fdisk [-ul] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change partition table</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
+ -l Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
+ -b 2048 (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
+ -C CYLINDERS Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
+ -H HEADS</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -S SECTORS</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_find"><strong>find</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Search for files. The default PATH is the current directory,
+default EXPRESSION is '-print'</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>EXPRESSION may consist of:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -follow Dereference symlinks
+ -xdev Don't descend directories on other filesystems
+ -maxdepth N Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
+ tests/actions to command line arguments only
+ -mindepth N Don't act on first N levels
+ -name PATTERN File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
+ -iname PATTERN Case insensitive -name
+ -path PATTERN Path matches PATTERN
+ -regex PATTERN Path matches regex PATTERN
+ -type X File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
+ -perm NNN Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
+ or exactly NNN
+ -mtime DAYS Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
+ or exactly N days
+ -mmin MINS Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
+ or exactly N minutes
+ -newer FILE Modified time is more recent than FILE's
+ -inum N File has inode number N
+ -user NAME File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
+ -group NAME File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
+ -depth Process directory name after traversing it
+ -size N[bck] File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.)).
+ +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
+ -links N Number of links is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
+ or exactly N
+ -print Print (default and assumed)
+ -print0 Delimit output with null characters rather than
+ newlines
+ -exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
+ matching files
+ -prune Stop traversing current subtree
+ -delete Delete files, turns on -depth option
+ (EXPR) Group an expression</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_findfs"><strong>findfs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+findfs LABEL=label or UUID=uuid
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Find a filesystem device based on a label or UUID</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_flash_eraseall"><strong>flash_eraseall</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+flash_eraseall [-jq] MTD_DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Erase an MTD device</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -j Format the device for jffs2
+ -q Don't display progress messages</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_flash_lock"><strong>flash_lock</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+flash_lock MTD_DEVICE OFFSET SECTORS
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Lock part or all of an MTD device. If SECTORS is -1, then all sectors
+will be locked, regardless of the value of OFFSET</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_flash_unlock"><strong>flash_unlock</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+flash_unlock MTD_DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Unlock an MTD device</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_flashcp"><strong>flashcp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+flashcp -v FILE MTD_DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Copy an image to MTD device</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fold"><strong>fold</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing to
+standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b Count bytes rather than columns
+ -s Break at spaces
+ -w Use WIDTH columns instead of 80</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_free"><strong>free</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+free
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display the amount of free and used system memory</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_freeramdisk"><strong>freeramdisk</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+freeramdisk DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fsck"><strong>fsck</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fsck [-ANPRTV] [-C fd] [-t fstype] [fs-options] [filesys...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Check and repair filesystems</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -A Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems
+ -N Don't execute, just show what would be done
+ -P With -A, check filesystems in parallel
+ -R With -A, skip the root filesystem
+ -T Don't show title on startup
+ -V Verbose
+ -C n Write status information to specified filedescriptor
+ -t type List of filesystem types to check</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fsck%2eminix"><strong>fsck.minix</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Check MINIX filesystem</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l List all filenames
+ -r Perform interactive repairs
+ -a Perform automatic repairs
+ -v Verbose
+ -s Output superblock information
+ -m Show &quot;mode not cleared&quot; warnings
+ -f Force file system check</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fsync"><strong>fsync</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fsync [OPTIONS] FILE...Write files' buffered blocks to disk
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Avoid syncing metadata</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ftpd"><strong>ftpd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ftpd [-wvS] [-t N] [-T N] [DIR]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Anonymous FTP server</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>ftpd should be used as an inetd service.
+ftpd's line for inetd.conf:
+ 21 stream tcp nowait root ftpd ftpd /files/to/serve
+It also can be ran from tcpsvd:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ tcpsvd -vE 0.0.0.0 21 ftpd /files/to/serve</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -w Allow upload
+ -v Log to stderr
+ -S Log to syslog
+ -t,-T Idle and absolute timeouts
+ DIR Change root to this directory</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ftpget"><strong>ftpget</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ftpget [OPTIONS] HOST [LOCAL_FILE] REMOTE_FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Retrieve a remote file via FTP</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c,--continue Continue previous transfer
+ -v,--verbose Verbose
+ -u,--username Username
+ -p,--password Password
+ -P,--port Port number</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ftpput"><strong>ftpput</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ftpput [OPTIONS] HOST [REMOTE_FILE] LOCAL_FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v,--verbose Verbose
+ -u,--username Username
+ -p,--password Password
+ -P,--port Port number</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_fuser"><strong>fuser</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+fuser [OPTIONS] FILE or PORT/PROTO
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Find processes which use FILEs or PORTs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m Find processes which use same fs as FILEs
+ -4 Search only IPv4 space
+ -6 Search only IPv6 space
+ -s Silent: just exit with 0 if any processes are found
+ -k Kill found processes (otherwise display PIDs)
+ -SIGNAL Signal to send (default: TERM)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_getopt"><strong>getopt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+getopt [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a,--alternative Allow long options starting with single -
+ -l,--longoptions=longopts Long options to be recognized
+ -n,--name=progname The name under which errors are reported
+ -o,--options=optstring Short options to be recognized
+ -q,--quiet Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
+ -Q,--quiet-output No normal output
+ -s,--shell=shell Set shell quoting conventions
+ -T,--test Test for getopt(1) version
+ -u,--unquoted Don't quote the output</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_getty"><strong>getty</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+getty [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -h Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
+ -i Don't display /etc/issue before running login
+ -L Local line, don't do carrier detect
+ -m Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
+ -w Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
+ -n Don't prompt the user for a login name
+ -f ISSUE_FILE Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
+ -l LOGIN Invoke LOGIN instead of /bin/login
+ -t SEC Terminate after SEC if no username is read
+ -I INITSTR Send INITSTR before anything else
+ -H HOST Log HOST into the utmp file as the hostname</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_grep"><strong>grep</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+grep [-HhrilLnqvsoweFEABCz] PATTERN [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -H Prefix output lines with filename where match was found
+ -h Suppress the prefixing filename on output
+ -r Recurse
+ -i Ignore case distinctions
+ -l List names of files that match
+ -L List names of files that don't match
+ -n Print line number with output lines
+ -q Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
+ -v Select non-matching lines
+ -s Suppress file open/read error messages
+ -c Only print count of matching lines
+ -o Show only the part of a line that matches PATTERN
+ -m N Match up to N times per file
+ -w Match whole words only
+ -F PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings
+ -E PATTERN is an extended regular expression
+ -e PTRN Pattern to match
+ -f FILE Read pattern from file
+ -A N Print N lines of trailing context
+ -B N Print N lines of leading context
+ -C N Print N lines of output context
+ -z Input is NUL terminated</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_gunzip"><strong>gunzip</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+gunzip [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress FILEs (or standard input)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -f Force
+ -t Test file integrity</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_gzip"><strong>gzip</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+gzip [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Compress FILEs (or standard input)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -d Decompress
+ -f Force</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_halt"><strong>halt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+halt [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f] [-w]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Halt the system</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Delay interval for halting
+ -n No call to sync()
+ -f Force halt (don't go through init)
+ -w Only write a wtmp record</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_hd"><strong>hd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+hd FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>hd is an alias for hexdump -C</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_hdparm"><strong>hdparm</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+hdparm [OPTIONS] [DEVICE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Get/set fs readahead
+ -A Set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)
+ -b Get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)
+ -B Set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)
+ -c Get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting
+ -C Check IDE power mode status
+ -d Get/set using_dma flag
+ -D Enable/disable drive defect-mgmt
+ -f Flush buffer cache for device on exit
+ -g Display drive geometry
+ -h Display terse usage information
+ -i Display drive identification
+ -I Detailed/current information directly from drive
+ -k Get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)
+ -K Set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)
+ -L Set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)
+ -m Get/set multiple sector count
+ -n Get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)
+ -p Set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)
+ -P Set drive prefetch count
+ -Q Get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)
+ -r Get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)
+ -R Register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
+ -S Set standby (spindown) timeout
+ -t Perform device read timings
+ -T Perform cache read timings
+ -u Get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)
+ -U Un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
+ -v Defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives
+ -V Display program version and exit immediately
+ -w Perform device reset (DANGEROUS)
+ -W Set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
+ -x Tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
+ -X Set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)
+ -y Put IDE drive in standby mode
+ -Y Put IDE drive to sleep
+ -Z Disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode
+ -z Re-read partition table</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_head"><strong>head</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+head [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print first 10 lines of each FILE (or standard input) to standard output.
+With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n N Print first N lines instead of first 10
+ -c N Output the first N bytes
+ -q Never output headers giving file names
+ -v Always output headers giving file names</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_hexdump"><strong>hexdump</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+hexdump [-bcCdefnosvxR] FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display FILEs or standard input in a user specified format</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b One-byte octal display
+ -c One-byte character display
+ -C Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
+ -d Two-byte decimal display
+ -e FORMAT STRING
+ -f FORMAT FILE
+ -n LENGTH Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
+ -o Two-byte octal display
+ -s OFFSET Skip OFFSET bytes
+ -v Display all input data
+ -x Two-byte hexadecimal display
+ -R Reverse of 'hexdump -Cv'</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_hostid"><strong>hostid</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+hostid
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_hostname"><strong>hostname</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+hostname [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME | -F FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Get or set hostname or DNS domain name</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Short
+ -i Addresses for the hostname
+ -d DNS domain name
+ -f Fully qualified domain name
+ -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_httpd"><strong>httpd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+httpd [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-r REALM] [-h HOME]
+or httpd -d/-e/-m STRING
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Listen for incoming HTTP requests</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -i Inetd mode
+ -f Don't daemonize
+ -v[v] Verbose
+ -c FILE Configuration file (default httpd.conf)
+ -p [IP:]PORT Bind to ip:port (default *:80)
+ -u USER[:GRP] Set uid/gid after binding to port
+ -r REALM Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
+ -h HOME Home directory (default .)
+ -m STRING MD5 crypt STRING
+ -e STRING HTML encode STRING
+ -d STRING URL decode STRING</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_hwclock"><strong>hwclock</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+hwclock [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Query and set hardware clock (RTC)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -r Show hardware clock time
+ -s Set system time from hardware clock
+ -w Set hardware clock to system time
+ -u Hardware clock is in UTC
+ -l Hardware clock is in local time
+ -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_id"><strong>id</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+id [OPTIONS] [USER]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print information about USER or the current user</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u Print user ID
+ -g Print group ID
+ -G Print supplementary group IDs
+ -n Print name instead of a number
+ -r Print real user ID instead of effective ID</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ifconfig"><strong>ifconfig</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ifconfig [-a] interface [address]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Configure a network interface</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
+ [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
+ [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
+ [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
+ [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
+ [hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
+ [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
+ [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
+ [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
+ [up|down] ...</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ifenslave"><strong>ifenslave</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ifenslave [-cdf] master-iface &lt;slave-iface...&gt;
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Configure network interfaces for parallel routing</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c, --change-active Change active slave
+ -d, --detach Remove slave interface from bonding device
+ -f, --force Force, even if interface is not Ethernet</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ifplugd"><strong>ifplugd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ifplugd [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Network interface plug detection daemon</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Don't daemonize
+ -s Don't log to syslog
+ -i IFACE Interface
+ -f/-F Treat link detection error as link down/link up
+ (otherwise exit on error)
+ -a Don't up interface at each link probe
+ -M Monitor creation/destruction of interface
+ (otherwise it must exist)
+ -r PROG Script to run
+ -x ARG Extra argument for script
+ -I Don't exit on nonzero exit code from script
+ -p Don't run script on daemon startup
+ -q Don't run script on daemon quit
+ -l Run script on startup even if no cable is detected
+ -t SECS Poll time in seconds
+ -u SECS Delay before running script after link up
+ -d SECS Delay after link down
+ -m MODE API mode (mii, priv, ethtool, wlan, iff, auto)
+ -k Kill running daemon</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_inetd"><strong>inetd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+inetd [-fe] [-q N] [-R N] [CONFFILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Listen for network connections and launch programs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Run in foreground
+ -e Log to stderr
+ -q N Socket listen queue (default: 128)
+ -R N Pause services after N connects/min
+ (default: 0 - disabled)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_init"><strong>init</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+init
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Init is the parent of all processes</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_inotifyd"><strong>inotifyd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+inotifyd PROG FILE1[:MASK] ...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG on filesystem changes.
+When a filesystem event matching MASK occurs on FILEn,
+PROG &lt;actual_event(s)&gt; &lt;FILEn&gt; [&lt;subfile_name&gt;] is run.
+Events:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ a File is accessed
+ c File is modified
+ e Metadata changed
+ w Writable file is closed
+ 0 Unwritable file is closed
+ r File is opened
+ D File is deleted
+ M File is moved
+ u Backing fs is unmounted
+ o Event queue overflowed
+ x File can't be watched anymore
+If watching a directory:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ m Subfile is moved into dir
+ y Subfile is moved out of dir
+ n Subfile is created
+ d Subfile is deleted</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>inotifyd waits for PROG to exit.
+When x event happens for all FILEs, inotifyd exits</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_insmod"><strong>insmod</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+insmod [OPTIONS] MODULE [symbol=value]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Force module to load into the wrong kernel version
+ -k Make module autoclean-able
+ -v Verbose
+ -q Quiet
+ -L Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module
+ -m Output load map to stdout
+ -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME
+ -x Don't export externs</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_install"><strong>install</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+install [-cdDsp] [-o USER] [-g GRP] [-m MODE] [source] dest|directory
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Copy files and set attributes</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Just copy (default)
+ -d Create directories
+ -D Create leading target directories
+ -s Strip symbol table
+ -p Preserve date
+ -o USER Set ownership
+ -g GRP Set group ownership
+ -m MODE Set permissions</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ionice"><strong>ionice</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ionice [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change I/O scheduling class and priority</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
+ -n Priority</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ip"><strong>ip</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ip [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} {COMMAND}
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND}
+where OBJECT := {address | route | link | tunnel | rule}
+OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link } | -o[neline] }</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ipaddr"><strong>ipaddr</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>ipaddr { {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING | {show|flush}
+<tr><td><td>[dev STRING] [to PREFIX] }</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>ipaddr {add|delete} IFADDR dev STRING
+ipaddr {show|flush} [dev STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]
+ [to PREFIX] [label PATTERN]
+ IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX
+ [broadcast ADDR] [anycast ADDR]
+ [label STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]
+ SCOPE-ID := [host | link | global | NUMBER]</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ipcalc"><strong>ipcalc</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ipcalc [OPTIONS] ADDRESS[[/]NETMASK] [NETMASK]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Calculate IP network settings from a IP address</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b,--broadcast Display calculated broadcast address
+ -n,--network Display calculated network address
+ -m,--netmask Display default netmask for IP
+ -p,--prefix Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
+ -h,--hostname Display first resolved host name
+ -s,--silent Don't ever display error messages</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ipcrm"><strong>ipcrm</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ipcrm [-MQS key] [-mqs id]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Upper-case options MQS remove an object by shmkey value.
+Lower-case options remove an object by shmid value.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -mM Remove memory segment after last detach
+ -qQ Remove message queue
+ -sS Remove semaphore</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ipcs"><strong>ipcs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ipcs [[-smq] -i shmid] | [[-asmq] [-tcplu]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -i Show specific resource
+Resource specification:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m Shared memory segments
+ -q Message queues
+ -s Semaphore arrays
+ -a All (default)
+Output format:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -t Time
+ -c Creator
+ -p Pid
+ -l Limits
+ -u Summary</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_iplink"><strong>iplink</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+iplink { set DEVICE { up | down | arp { on | off } | show [DEVICE] }
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>iplink set DEVICE { up | down | arp | multicast { on | off } |
+ dynamic { on | off } |
+ mtu MTU }
+iplink show [DEVICE]</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_iproute"><strong>iproute</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>iproute { list | flush | { add | del | change | append |
+<tr><td><td>replace | monitor } ROUTE }</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>iproute { list | flush } SELECTOR
+iproute get ADDRESS [from ADDRESS iif STRING]
+ [oif STRING] [tos TOS]
+iproute { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE
+ SELECTOR := [root PREFIX] [match PREFIX] [proto RTPROTO]
+ ROUTE := [TYPE] PREFIX [tos TOS] [proto RTPROTO]
+ [metric METRIC]</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_iprule"><strong>iprule</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+iprule {[list | add | del] RULE}
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p><table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>iprule [list | add | del] SELECTOR ACTION
+<tr><td><td>SELECTOR := [from PREFIX] [to PREFIX] [tos TOS] [fwmark FWMARK]
+<tr><td><td>[dev STRING] [pref NUMBER]
+<tr><td><td>ACTION := [table TABLE_ID] [nat ADDRESS]
+<tr><td><td>[prohibit | reject | unreachable]
+<tr><td><td>[realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM]
+<tr><td><td>TABLE_ID := [local | main | default | NUMBER]</table></p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_iptunnel"><strong>iptunnel</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [NAME]
+<tr><td><td>[mode { ipip | gre | sit }]
+<tr><td><td>[remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [ttl TTL]</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p><table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [NAME]
+<tr><td><td>[mode { ipip | gre | sit }] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR]
+<tr><td><td>[[i|o]seq] [[i|o]key KEY] [[i|o]csum]
+<tr><td><td>[ttl TTL] [tos TOS] [[no]pmtudisc] [dev PHYS_DEV]</table></p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_kbd_mode"><strong>kbd_mode</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+kbd_mode [-a|k|s|u] [-C TTY]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Report or set the keyboard mode</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Default (ASCII)
+ -k Medium-raw (keyboard)
+ -s Raw (scancode)
+ -u Unicode (utf-8)
+ -C TTY Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_kill"><strong>kill</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+kill [-l] [-SIG] PID...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l List all signal names and numbers</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_killall"><strong>killall</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+killall [-l] [-q] [-SIG] process-name...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send a signal (default: TERM) to given processes</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l List all signal names and numbers
+ -q Don't complain if no processes were killed</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_killall5"><strong>killall5</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+killall5 [-l] [-SIG] [-o PID]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send a signal (default: TERM) to all processes outside current session</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l List all signal names and numbers
+ -o PID Don't signal this PID</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_klogd"><strong>klogd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+klogd [-c N] [-n]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Kernel logger</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c N Only messages with level &lt; N are printed to console
+ -n Run in foreground</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_last"><strong>last</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+last [-HW] [-f file]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Show listing of the last users that logged into the system</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -W Display with no host column truncation
+ -f file Read from file instead of /var/log/wtmp</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_length"><strong>length</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+length STRING
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print STRING's length</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_less"><strong>less</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+less [-EMNmh~I?] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>View a file or list of files. The position within files can be
+changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -E Quit once the end of a file is reached
+ -M,-m Display status line with line numbers
+ and percentage through the file
+ -N Prefix line number to each line
+ -I Ignore case in all searches
+ -~ Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ln"><strong>ln</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ln [OPTIONS] TARGET... LINK|DIRECTORY
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create a link LINK or DIRECTORY/TARGET to the specified <code>TARGET(s)</code></p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
+ -f Remove existing destination files
+ -n Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
+ -b Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
+ -S suf Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_loadfont"><strong>loadfont</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+loadfont &lt; font
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Load a console font from standard input</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_loadkmap"><strong>loadkmap</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+loadkmap &lt; keymap
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Load a binary keyboard translation table from standard input</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_logger"><strong>logger</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+logger [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Log to stderr as well as the system log
+ -t TAG Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
+ -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_login"><strong>login</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Begin a new session on the system</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Don't authenticate (user already authenticated)
+ -h Name of the remote host
+ -p Preserve environment</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_logname"><strong>logname</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+logname
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the name of the current user</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_logread"><strong>logread</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+logread [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Output data as log grows</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_losetup"><strong>losetup</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>losetup [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices
+<tr><td><td>losetup -d LOOPDEV - disassociate
+<tr><td><td>losetup [-f] - show</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -o OFS Start OFS bytes into FILE
+ -f Show first free loop device</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lpd"><strong>lpd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lpd SPOOLDIR [HELPER [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>SPOOLDIR must contain (symlinks to) device nodes or directories
+with names matching print queue names. In the first case, jobs are
+sent directly to the device. Otherwise each job is stored in queue
+directory and HELPER program is called. Name of file to print
+is passed in $DATAFILE variable.
+Example:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ tcpsvd -E 0 515 softlimit -m 999999 lpd /var/spool ./print</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lpq"><strong>lpq</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lpq [-P queue[@host[:port]]] [-U USERNAME] [-d JOBID...] [-fs]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -P lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
+ -d Delete jobs
+ -f Force any waiting job to be printed
+ -s Short display</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lpr"><strong>lpr</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lpr -P queue[@host[:port]] -U USERNAME -J TITLE -Vmh [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -P lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
+ -m Send mail on completion
+ -h Print banner page too
+ -V Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ls"><strong>ls</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhk] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>List directory contents</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -1 List in a single column
+ -A Don't list . and ..
+ -a Don't hide entries starting with .
+ -C List by columns
+ -c With -l: sort by ctime
+ --color[={always,never,auto}] Control coloring
+ -d List directory entries instead of contents
+ -e List full date and time
+ -F Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
+ -i List inode numbers
+ -l Long listing format
+ -n List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
+ -p Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
+ -L List entries pointed to by symlinks
+ -R List subdirectories recursively
+ -r Sort in reverse order
+ -S Sort by file size
+ -s List the size of each file, in blocks
+ -T N Assume tabstop every N columns
+ -t With -l: sort by modification time
+ -u With -l: sort by access time
+ -v Sort by version
+ -w N Assume the terminal is N columns wide
+ -x List by lines
+ -X Sort by extension
+ -h List sizes in human readable format (1K 243M 2G)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lsattr"><strong>lsattr</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lsattr [-Radlv] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>List file attributes on an ext2 fs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -R Recursively list subdirectories
+ -a Don't hide entries starting with .
+ -d List directory entries instead of contents
+ -l List long flag names
+ -v List the file's version/generation number</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lsmod"><strong>lsmod</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lsmod
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>List the currently loaded kernel modules</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lspci"><strong>lspci</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lspci [-mk]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>List all PCI devices</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m Parseable output
+ -k Show driver</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lzmacat"><strong>lzmacat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lzmacat FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lzop"><strong>lzop</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lzop [-cfvd123456789CF] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -f Force
+ -v Verbose
+ -d Decompress
+ -F Don't store or verify checksum
+ -C Also write checksum of compressed block
+ -1..9 Compression level</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_lzopcat"><strong>lzopcat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+lzopcat [-vCF] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v Verbose
+ -F Don't store or verify checksum</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_makedevs"><strong>makedevs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create a range of special files as specified in a device table.
+Device table entries take the form of:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>&lt;type&gt; &lt;mode&gt; &lt;uid&gt; &lt;gid&gt; &lt;major&gt; &lt;minor&gt; &lt;start&gt; &lt;inc&gt; &lt;count&gt;
+Where name is the file name, type can be one of:
+ f Regular file
+ d Directory
+ c Character device
+ b Block device
+ p Fifo (named pipe)
+uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the
+target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to
+to device special files. A '-' may be used for blank entries.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_makemime"><strong>makemime</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+makemime [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create multipart MIME-encoded message from FILEs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -o FILE Output. Default: stdout
+ -a HDR Add header. Examples:
+ &quot;From: user@host.org&quot;, &quot;Date: `date -R`&quot;
+ -c CT Content type. Default: text/plain
+ -C CS Charset. Default: us-ascii</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Other options are silently ignored</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_man"><strong>man</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+man [OPTIONS] [MANPAGE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Format and display manual page</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Display all pages
+ -w Show page locations</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_md5sum"><strong>md5sum</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+md5sum [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+ or: md5sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print or check MD5 checksums</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Check sums against given list
+ -s Don't output anything, status code shows success
+ -w Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mdev"><strong>mdev</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mdev [-s]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>It can be run by kernel as a hotplug helper. To activate it:
+ echo /sbin/mdev &gt; /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug
+It uses /etc/mdev.conf with lines
+[-]DEVNAME UID:GID PERM [&gt;|=PATH] [@|$|*PROG]</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mesg"><strong>mesg</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mesg [y|n]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p><table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>Control write access to your terminal
+<tr><td><td>y<td>Allow write access to your terminal
+<tr><td><td>n<td>Disallow write access to your terminal</table></p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_microcom"><strong>microcom</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
+ next byte to it
+ -t Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
+ -s Set serial line to SPEED
+ -X Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkdir"><strong>mkdir</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create DIRECTORY</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m Mode
+ -p No error if exists; make parent directories as needed</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkdosfs"><strong>mkdosfs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkdosfs [-v] [-n LABEL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Make a FAT32 filesystem</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v Verbose
+ -n LBL Volume label</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mke2fs"><strong>mke2fs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mke2fs [-Fn] [-b BLK_SIZE] [-i INODE_RATIO] [-I INODE_SIZE] [-m RESERVED_PERCENT] [-L LABEL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b BLK_SIZE Block size, bytes
+ -F Force
+ -i RATIO Max number of files is filesystem_size / RATIO
+ -I BYTES Inode size (min 128)
+ -L LBL Volume label
+ -m PERCENT Percent of blocks to reserve for admin
+ -n Dry run</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkfifo"><strong>mkfifo</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkfifo [OPTIONS] name
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkfs%2eext2"><strong>mkfs.ext2</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkfs.ext2 [-Fn] [-b BLK_SIZE] [-i INODE_RATIO] [-I INODE_SIZE] [-m RESERVED_PERCENT] [-L LABEL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b BLK_SIZE Block size, bytes
+ -F Force
+ -i RATIO Max number of files is filesystem_size / RATIO
+ -I BYTES Inode size (min 128)
+ -L LBL Volume label
+ -m PERCENT Percent of blocks to reserve for admin
+ -n Dry run</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkfs%2eminix"><strong>mkfs.minix</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkfs.minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Make a MINIX filesystem</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Check device for bad blocks
+ -n [14|30] Maximum length of filenames
+ -i INODES Number of inodes for the filesystem
+ -l FILENAME Read bad blocks list from FILENAME
+ -v Make version 2 filesystem</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkfs%2ereiser"><strong>mkfs.reiser</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkfs.reiser [-f] [-l LABEL] BLOCKDEV [4K-BLOCKS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Make a ReiserFS V3 filesystem</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Force
+ -l LBL Volume label</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkfs%2evfat"><strong>mkfs.vfat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkfs.vfat [-v] [-n LABEL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Make a FAT32 filesystem</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v Verbose
+ -n LBL Volume label</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mknod"><strong>mknod</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)
+TYPEs include:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ b: Make a block device
+ c or u: Make a character device
+ p: Make a named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkpasswd"><strong>mkpasswd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkpasswd [OPTIONS] [PASSWORD] [SALT]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Crypt the PASSWORD using <code>crypt(3)</code></p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -P,--password-fd=N Read password from fd N
+ -m,--method=TYPE Encryption method TYPE
+ -S,--salt=SALT</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mkswap"><strong>mkswap</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mkswap [OPTIONS] BLOCKDEV
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Prepare BLOCKDEV to be used as swap partition</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -L LBL Label</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mktemp"><strong>mktemp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its name.
+TEMPLATE must end with XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Make a directory instead of a file
+ -t Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
+ -p DIR Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>For -t or -p, directory is chosen as follows:
+$TMPDIR if set, else -p DIR, else /tmp</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_modprobe"><strong>modprobe</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+modprobe [-knqrsvb] MODULE [symbol=value...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -k Make module autoclean-able
+ -n Dry run
+ -q Quiet
+ -r Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean
+ -s Report via syslog instead of stderr
+ -v Verbose
+ -b Apply blacklist to module names too</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_more"><strong>more</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+more [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>View FILE or standard input one screenful at a time</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mount"><strong>mount</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mount [OPTIONS] [-o OPTS] DEVICE NODE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Mount all filesystems in fstab
+ -f Dry run
+ -i Don't run mount helper
+ -r Read-only mount
+ -w Read-write mount (default)
+ -t FSTYPE Filesystem type
+ -O OPT Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
+-o OPT:
+ loop Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
+ [a]sync Writes are [a]synchronous
+ [no]atime Disable/enable updates to inode access times
+ [no]diratime Disable/enable atime updates to directories
+ [no]relatime Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
+ [no]dev (Dis)allow use of special device files
+ [no]exec (Dis)allow use of executable files
+ [no]suid (Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
+ [r]shared Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
+ [r]slave Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
+ [r]private Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
+ [un]bindable Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
+ bind Bind a file or directory to another location
+ move Relocate an existing mount point
+ remount Remount a mounted filesystem, changing flags
+ ro/rw Same as -r/-w</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>There are filesystem-specific -o flags.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mountpoint"><strong>mountpoint</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mountpoint [-q] &lt;[-dn] DIR | -x DEVICE&gt;
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Check if the directory is a mountpoint</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -q Quiet
+ -d Print major/minor device number of the filesystem
+ -n Print device name of the filesystem
+ -x Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mt"><strong>mt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mt [-f device] opcode value
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Control magnetic tape drive operation</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Available Opcodes:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase
+fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2
+ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity
+setpart tell unload unlock weof wset</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_mv"><strong>mv</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+mv [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST
+or: mv [OPTIONS] SOURCE... DIRECTORY
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move <code>SOURCE(s)</code> to DIRECTORY</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Don't prompt before overwriting
+ -i Interactive, prompt before overwrite</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_nameif"><strong>nameif</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Rename network interface while it in the down state</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c FILE Use configuration file (default: /etc/mactab)
+ -s Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility)
+ IFNAME MACADDR new_interface_name interface_mac_address</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_nc"><strong>nc</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+nc [OPTIONS] HOST PORT - connect
+nc [OPTIONS] -l -p PORT [HOST] [PORT] - listen
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -e PROG Run PROG after connect (must be last)
+ -l Listen mode, for inbound connects
+ -n Don't do DNS resolution
+ -s ADDR Local address
+ -p PORT Local port
+ -u UDP mode
+ -v Verbose
+ -w SEC Timeout for connects and final net reads
+ -i SEC Delay interval for lines sent
+ -o FILE Hex dump traffic
+ -z Zero-I/O mode (scanning)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_netstat"><strong>netstat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+netstat [-laentuwxrWp]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display networking information</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l Display listening server sockets
+ -a Display all sockets (default: connected)
+ -e Display other/more information
+ -n Don't resolve names
+ -t Tcp sockets
+ -u Udp sockets
+ -w Raw sockets
+ -x Unix sockets
+ -r Display routing table
+ -W Display with no column truncation
+ -p Display PID/Program name for sockets</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_nice"><strong>nice</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+nice [-n ADJUST] [PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG with modified scheduling priority</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n ADJUST Adjust priority by ADJUST</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_nmeter"><strong>nmeter</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+nmeter format_string
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Monitor system in real time</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Format specifiers:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ %Nc or %[cN] Monitor CPU. N - bar size, default 10
+ (displays: S:system U:user N:niced D:iowait I:irq i:softirq)
+ %[niface] Monitor network interface 'iface'
+ %m Monitor allocated memory
+ %[mf] Monitor free memory
+ %[mt] Monitor total memory
+ %s Monitor allocated swap
+ %f Monitor number of used file descriptors
+ %Ni Monitor total/specific IRQ rate
+ %x Monitor context switch rate
+ %p Monitor forks
+ %[pn] Monitor # of processes
+ %b Monitor block io
+ %Nt Show time (with N decimal points)
+ %Nd Milliseconds between updates (default:1000)
+ %r Print &lt;cr&gt; instead of &lt;lf&gt; at EOL</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_nohup"><strong>nohup</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+nohup PROG [ARGS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ntpd"><strong>ntpd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ntpd [-dnqwl] [-S PROG] [-p PEER]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>NTP client/server</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Verbose
+ -n Do not daemonize
+ -q Quit after clock is set
+ -w Do not set time (only query peers), implies -n
+ -l Run as server on port 123
+ -S PROG Run PROG after stepping time, stratum change, and every 11 mins
+ -p PEER Obtain time from PEER (may be repeated)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_od"><strong>od</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-t TYPE] [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE
+(or standard input) to standard output.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_openvt"><strong>openvt</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+openvt [-c N] [-sw] [PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Start PROG on a new virtual terminal</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c N Use specified VT
+ -s Switch to the VT
+ -w Wait for PROG to exit</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_passwd"><strong>passwd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+passwd [OPTIONS] [USER]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change USER's password. If no USER is specified,
+changes the password for the current user.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Algorithm to use for password (des, md5)
+ -d Delete password for the account
+ -l Lock (disable) account
+ -u Unlock (re-enable) account</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_patch"><strong>patch</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+patch [OPTIONS] [ORIGFILE [PATCHFILE]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p,--strip N Strip N leading components from file names
+ -i,--input DIFF Read DIFF instead of stdin
+ -R,--reverse Reverse patch
+ -N,--forward Ignore already applied patches
+ --dry-run Don't actually change files</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_pgrep"><strong>pgrep</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+pgrep [-flnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display <code>process(es)</code> selected by regex PATTERN</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l Show command name too
+ -f Match against entire command line
+ -n Show the newest process only
+ -o Show the oldest process only
+ -v Negate the match
+ -x Match whole name (not substring)
+ -s Match session ID (0 for current)
+ -P Match parent process ID</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_pidof"><strong>pidof</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+pidof [OPTIONS] [NAME...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Show only one PID
+ -o PID Omit given pid
+ Use %PPID to omit pid of pidof's parent</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ping"><strong>ping</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ping [OPTIONS] HOST
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -4, -6 Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
+ -c CNT Send only CNT pings
+ -s SIZE Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
+ -I IFACE/IP Use interface or IP address as source
+ -W SEC Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
+ (after all -c CNT packets are sent)
+ -w SEC Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
+ (can exit earlier with -c CNT)
+ -q Quiet, only displays output at start
+ and when finished</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ping6"><strong>ping6</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ping6 [OPTIONS] HOST
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c CNT Send only CNT pings
+ -s SIZE Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
+ -I IFACE/IP Use interface or IP address as source
+ -q Quiet, only displays output at start
+ and when finished</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_pivot_root"><strong>pivot_root</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT
+the new root file system</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_pkill"><strong>pkill</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+pkill [-l|-SIGNAL] [-fnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Send a signal to <code>process(es)</code> selected by regex PATTERN</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l List all signals
+ -f Match against entire command line
+ -n Signal the newest process only
+ -o Signal the oldest process only
+ -v Negate the match
+ -x Match whole name (not substring)
+ -s Match session ID (0 for current)
+ -P Match parent process ID</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_popmaildir"><strong>popmaildir</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+popmaildir [OPTIONS] MAILDIR [CONN_HELPER ARGS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Fetch content of remote mailbox to local maildir</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Skip authorization
+ -T Get messages with TOP instead with RETR
+ -k Keep retrieved messages on the server
+ -t SEC Network timeout
+ -F &quot;PROG ARGS&quot; Filter program. May be multiple
+ -M &quot;PROG ARGS&quot; Delivery program</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_poweroff"><strong>poweroff</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+poweroff [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Halt and shut off power</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Delay interval for halting
+ -n No call to sync()
+ -f Force power off (don't go through init)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_printenv"><strong>printenv</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+printenv [VARIABLE...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print all or part of environment.
+If no environment VARIABLE specified, print them all.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_printf"><strong>printf</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Format and print <code>ARGUMENT(s)</code> according to FORMAT,
+where FORMAT controls the output exactly as in C printf</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ps"><strong>ps</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ps
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Report process status</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -o col1,col2=header Select columns for display
+ -T Show threads</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_pscan"><strong>pscan</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+pscan [-cb] [-p MIN_PORT] [-P MAX_PORT] [-t TIMEOUT] [-T MIN_RTT] HOST
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Scan a host, print all open ports</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Show closed ports too
+ -b Show blocked ports too
+ -p Scan from this port (default 1)
+ -P Scan up to this port (default 1024)
+ -t Timeout (default 5000 ms)
+ -T Minimum rtt (default 5 ms, increase for congested hosts)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_pwd"><strong>pwd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+pwd
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the full filename of the current working directory</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_raidautorun"><strong>raidautorun</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+raidautorun DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Tell the kernel to automatically search and start RAID arrays</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rdate"><strong>rdate</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rdate [-sp] HOST
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Set the system date and time (default)
+ -p Print the date and time</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rdev"><strong>rdev</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rdev
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the device node associated with the filesystem mounted at '/'</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_readlink"><strong>readlink</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+readlink [-fnv] FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display the value of a symlink</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Canonicalize by following all symlinks
+ -n Don't add newline
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_readprofile"><strong>readprofile</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+readprofile [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m mapfile (Default: /boot/System.map)
+ -p profile (Default: /proc/profile)
+ -M mult Set the profiling multiplier to mult
+ -i Print only info about the sampling step
+ -v Verbose
+ -a Print all symbols, even if count is 0
+ -b Print individual histogram-bin counts
+ -s Print individual counters within functions
+ -r Reset all the counters (root only)
+ -n Disable byte order auto-detection</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_realpath"><strong>realpath</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+realpath pathname...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Return the absolute pathnames of given argument</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_reboot"><strong>reboot</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+reboot [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Reboot the system</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Delay interval for rebooting
+ -n No call to sync()
+ -f Force reboot (don't go through init)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_reformime"><strong>reformime</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+reformime [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Parse MIME-encoded message</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -x prefix Extract content of MIME sections to files
+ -X prog [args] Filter content of MIME sections through prog.
+ Must be the last option</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Other options are silently ignored.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_renice"><strong>renice</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change priority of running processes</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
+ -p Process id(s) (default)
+ -g Process group id(s)
+ -u Process user name(s) and/or id(s)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_reset"><strong>reset</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+reset
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Reset the screen</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_resize"><strong>resize</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+resize
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Resize the screen</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rm"><strong>rm</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rm [OPTIONS] FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Remove (unlink) FILEs</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -i Always prompt before removing
+ -f Never prompt
+ -r,-R Remove directories recursively</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rmdir"><strong>rmdir</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rmdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Remove the DIRECTORY, if it is empty</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p|--parents Include parents
+ --ignore-fail-on-non-empty</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rmmod"><strong>rmmod</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rmmod [OPTIONS] [MODULE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Unload the specified kernel modules from the kernel</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -w Wait until the module is no longer used
+ -f Force unloading
+ -a Remove all unused modules (recursively)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_route"><strong>route</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+route [{add|del|delete}]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Edit kernel routing tables</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Don't resolve names
+ -e Display other/more information
+ -A inet{6} Select address family</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rpm"><strong>rpm</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rpm -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Manipulate RPM packages</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -i Install package
+ -q Query package
+ -p Query uninstalled package
+ -i Show information
+ -l List contents
+ -d List documents
+ -c List config files</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rpm2cpio"><strong>rpm2cpio</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rpm2cpio package.rpm
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Output a cpio archive of the rpm file</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rtcwake"><strong>rtcwake</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rtcwake [-a | -l | -u] [-d DEV] [-m MODE] [-s SEC | -t TIME]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a,--auto Read clock mode from adjtime
+ -l,--local Clock is set to local time
+ -u,--utc Clock is set to UTC time
+ -d,--device=DEV Specify the RTC device
+ -m,--mode=MODE Set the sleep state (default: standby)
+ -s,--seconds=SEC Set the timeout in SEC seconds from now
+ -t,--time=TIME Set the timeout to TIME seconds from epoch</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_run%2dparts"><strong>run-parts</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+run-parts [-t] [-l] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run a bunch of scripts in a directory</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -t Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
+ -a ARG Pass ARG as argument for every program
+ -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program
+ -l Print names of all matching files even if they are not executable</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_runlevel"><strong>runlevel</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+runlevel [utmp]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Find the current and previous system runlevel</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>If no utmp file exists or if no runlevel record can be found,
+print ``unknown''</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_runsv"><strong>runsv</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+runsv dir
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_runsvdir"><strong>runsvdir</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+runsvdir [-P] [-s SCRIPT] dir
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Start a runsv process for each subdirectory. If it exits, restart it.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -P Put each runsv in a new session
+ -s SCRIPT Run SCRIPT &lt;signo&gt; after signal is processed</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_rx"><strong>rx</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+rx FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Receive a file using the xmodem protocol</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_script"><strong>script</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+script [-afqt] [-c PROG] [OUTFILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Append output
+ -c Run PROG, not shell
+ -f Flush output after each write
+ -q Quiet
+ -t Send timing to stderr</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_scriptreplay"><strong>scriptreplay</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+scriptreplay timingfile [typescript [divisor]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Play back typescripts, using timing information</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sed"><strong>sed</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sed [-efinr] SED_CMD [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -e CMD Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
+ -f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
+ -i Edit files in-place (else sends result to stdout)
+ -n Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
+ -r Use extended regex syntax</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>If no -e or -f, the first non-option argument is the sed command string.
+Remaining arguments are input files (stdin if none).</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sendmail"><strong>sendmail</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sendmail [OPTIONS] [RECIPIENT_EMAIL]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Read email from stdin and send it</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Standard options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -t Read additional recipients from message body
+ -f sender Sender (required)
+ -o options Various options. -oi implied, others are ignored
+ -i -oi synonym. implied and ignored</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Busybox specific options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -w seconds Network timeout
+ -H 'PROG ARGS' Run connection helper
+ Examples:
+ -H 'exec openssl s_client -quiet -tls1 -starttls smtp
+ -connect smtp.gmail.com:25' &lt;email.txt
+ [4&lt;username_and_passwd.txt | -au&lt;username&gt; -ap&lt;password&gt;]
+ -H 'exec openssl s_client -quiet -tls1
+ -connect smtp.gmail.com:465' &lt;email.txt
+ [4&lt;username_and_passwd.txt | -au&lt;username&gt; -ap&lt;password&gt;]
+ -S server[:port] Server
+ -au&lt;username&gt; Username for AUTH LOGIN
+ -ap&lt;password&gt; Password for AUTH LOGIN
+ -am&lt;method&gt; Authentication method. Ignored. LOGIN is implied</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Other options are silently ignored; -oi -t is implied
+Use makemime applet to create message with attachments</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_seq"><strong>seq</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+seq [-w] [-s SEP] [FIRST [INC]] LAST
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INC.
+FIRST, INC default to 1</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -w Pad to last with leading zeros
+ -s SEP String separator</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setarch"><strong>setarch</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setarch personality program [args...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Personality may be:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ linux32 Set 32bit uname emulation
+ linux64 Set 64bit uname emulation</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setconsole"><strong>setconsole</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setconsole [-r|--reset] [DEVICE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Redirect system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -r Reset output to /dev/console</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setfont"><strong>setfont</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setfont FONT [-m MAPFILE] [-C TTY]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Load a console font</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m MAPFILE Load console screen map
+ -C TTY Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setkeycodes"><strong>setkeycodes</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map,
+allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal),
+and KEYCODE is given in decimal</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setlogcons"><strong>setlogcons</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setlogcons N
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Redirect the kernel output to console N (0 for current)</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setsid"><strong>setsid</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setsid PROG [ARG...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG in a new session. PROG will have no controlling terminal
+and will not be affected by keyboard signals (Ctrl-C etc).
+See <a href="#item_setsid"><code>setsid(2)</code></a> for details.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_setuidgid"><strong>setuidgid</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+setuidgid account prog args
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Set uid and gid to account's uid and gid, removing all supplementary
+groups and run PROG</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sha1sum"><strong>sha1sum</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sha1sum [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+ or: sha1sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print or check SHA1 checksums</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Check sums against given list
+ -s Don't output anything, status code shows success
+ -w Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sha256sum"><strong>sha256sum</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sha256sum [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+ or: sha256sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print or check SHA256 checksums</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Check sums against given list
+ -s Don't output anything, status code shows success
+ -w Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sha512sum"><strong>sha512sum</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sha512sum [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+ or: sha512sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print or check SHA512 checksums</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Check sums against given list
+ -s Don't output anything, status code shows success
+ -w Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_showkey"><strong>showkey</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+showkey [-a | -k | -s]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Show keys pressed</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Display decimal/octal/hex values of the keys
+ -k Display interpreted keycodes (default)
+ -s Display raw scan-codes</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_slattach"><strong>slattach</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+slattach [-cehmLF] [-s SPEED] [-p PROTOCOL] DEVICE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Attach network <code>interface(s)</code> to serial <code>line(s)</code></p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p PROT Set protocol (slip, cslip, slip6, clisp6 or adaptive)
+ -s SPD Set line speed
+ -e Exit after initializing device
+ -h Exit when the carrier is lost
+ -c PROG Run PROG when the line is hung up
+ -m Do NOT initialize the line in raw 8 bits mode
+ -L Enable 3-wire operation
+ -F Disable RTS/CTS flow control</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sleep"><strong>sleep</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sleep [N]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can
+have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_softlimit"><strong>softlimit</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>softlimit [-a BYTES] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-s BYTES] [-l BYTES]
+<tr><td><td>[-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] [-r BYTES] [-o N] [-p N] [-t N]
+<tr><td><td>PROG ARGS</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Set soft resource limits, then run PROG</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a BYTES Limit total size of all segments
+ -m BYTES Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES -a BYTES
+ -d BYTES Limit data segment
+ -s BYTES Limit stack segment
+ -l BYTES Limit locked memory size
+ -o N Limit number of open files per process
+ -p N Limit number of processes per uid
+Options controlling file sizes:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f BYTES Limit output file sizes
+ -c BYTES Limit core file size
+Efficiency opts:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -r BYTES Limit resident set size
+ -t N Limit CPU time, process receives
+ a SIGXCPU after N seconds</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sort"><strong>sort</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sort [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o FILE] [-k start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t CHAR] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Sort lines of text</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b Ignore leading blanks
+ -c Check whether input is sorted
+ -d Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
+ -f Ignore case
+ -g General numerical sort
+ -i Ignore unprintable characters
+ -k Sort key
+ -M Sort month
+ -n Sort numbers
+ -o Output to file
+ -k Sort by key
+ -t CHAR Key separator
+ -r Reverse sort order
+ -s Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
+ -u Suppress duplicate lines
+ -z Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
+ -mST Ignored for GNU compatibility</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_split"><strong>split</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+split [OPTIONS] [INPUT [PREFIX]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -b n[k|m] Split by bytes
+ -l n Split by lines
+ -a n Use n letters as suffix</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_start%2dstop%2ddaemon"><strong>start-stop-daemon</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [-- arguments...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Search for matching processes, and then
+-K: stop all matching processes.
+-S: start a process unless a matching process is found.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Process matching:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u,--user USERNAME|UID Match only this user's processes
+ -n,--name NAME Match processes with NAME
+ in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
+ -x,--exec EXECUTABLE Match processes with this command
+ in /proc/PID/cmdline
+ -p,--pidfile FILE Match a process with PID from the file
+ All specified conditions must match
+-S only:
+ -x,--exec EXECUTABLE Program to run
+ -a,--startas NAME Zeroth argument
+ -b,--background Background
+ -N,--nicelevel N Change nice level
+ -c,--chuid USER[:[GRP]] Change to user/group
+ -m,--make-pidfile Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
+-K only:
+ -s,--signal SIG Signal to send
+ -t,--test Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found
+Other:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -o,--oknodo Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
+ -v,--verbose Verbose
+ -q,--quiet Quiet</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_stat"><strong>stat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+stat [OPTIONS] FILE...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display file (default) or filesystem status</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c fmt Use the specified format
+ -f Display filesystem status
+ -L Dereference links
+ -t Display info in terse form</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Valid format sequences for files:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ %a Access rights in octal
+ %A Access rights in human readable form
+ %b Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
+ %B The size in bytes of each block reported by %b
+ %d Device number in decimal
+ %D Device number in hex
+ %f Raw mode in hex
+ %F File type
+ %g Group ID of owner
+ %G Group name of owner
+ %h Number of hard links
+ %i Inode number
+ %n File name
+ %N Quoted file name with dereference if symlink
+ %o I/O block size
+ %s Total size, in bytes
+ %t Major device type in hex
+ %T Minor device type in hex
+ %u User ID of owner
+ %U User name of owner
+ %x Time of last access
+ %X Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
+ %y Time of last modification
+ %Y Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
+ %z Time of last change
+ %Z Time of last change as seconds since Epoch</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Valid format sequences for file systems:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ %a Free blocks available to non-superuser
+ %b Total data blocks in file system
+ %c Total file nodes in file system
+ %d Free file nodes in file system
+ %f Free blocks in file system
+ %i File System ID in hex
+ %l Maximum length of filenames
+ %n File name
+ %s Block size (for faster transfer)
+ %S Fundamental block size (for block counts)
+ %t Type in hex
+ %T Type in human readable form</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_strings"><strong>strings</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+strings [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display printable strings in a binary file</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Scan whole file (default)
+ -f Precede strings with filenames
+ -n LEN At least LEN characters form a string (default 4)
+ -o Precede strings with decimal offsets</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_stty"><strong>stty</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline,
+and deviations from stty sane</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -F DEVICE Open device instead of stdin
+ -a Print all current settings in human-readable form
+ -g Print in stty-readable form
+ [SETTING] See manpage</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_su"><strong>su</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+su [OPTIONS] [-] [USERNAME]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Change user id or become root</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p,-m Preserve environment
+ -c CMD Command to pass to 'sh -c'
+ -s SH Shell to use instead of default shell</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sulogin"><strong>sulogin</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sulogin [OPTIONS] [TTY]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Single user login</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -t N Timeout</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sum"><strong>sum</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sum [-rs] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Checksum and count the blocks in a file</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -r Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)
+ -s Use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sv"><strong>sv</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sv [-v] [-w SEC] command service...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Control services monitored by runsv supervisor.
+Commands (only first character is enough):</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>status: query service status
+up: if service isn't running, start it. If service stops, restart it
+once: like 'up', but if service stops, don't restart it
+down: send TERM and CONT signals. If ./run exits, start ./finish
+ if it exists. After it stops, don't restart service
+exit: send TERM and CONT signals to service and log service. If they exit,
+ runsv exits too
+pause, cont, hup, alarm, interrupt, quit, 1, 2, term, kill: send
+STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM, INT, QUIT, USR1, USR2, TERM, KILL signal to service</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_svlogd"><strong>svlogd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+svlogd [-ttv] [-r c] [-R abc] [-l len] [-b buflen] dir...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Continuously read log data from standard input, optionally
+filter log messages, and write the data to one or more automatically
+rotated logs</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_swapoff"><strong>swapoff</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Stop swapping on DEVICE</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Stop swapping on all swap devices</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_swapon"><strong>swapon</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+swapon [-a] [-p PRI] [DEVICE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Start swapping on DEVICE</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Start swapping on all swap devices
+ -p PRI Set swap device priority</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_switch_root"><strong>switch_root</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Free initramfs and switch to another root fs:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>chroot to NEW_ROOT, delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /,
+execute NEW_INIT. PID must be 1. NEW_ROOT must be a mountpoint.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c DEV Reopen stdio to DEV after switch</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sync"><strong>sync</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sync
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Write all buffered blocks to disk</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_sysctl"><strong>sysctl</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+sysctl [OPTIONS] [VALUE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Configure kernel parameters at runtime</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Don't print key names
+ -e Don't warn about unknown keys
+ -w Change sysctl setting
+ -p FILE Load sysctl settings from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
+ -a Display all values
+ -A Display all values in table form</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_syslogd"><strong>syslogd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+syslogd [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>System logging utility.
+Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Run in foreground
+ -O FILE Log to given file (default:/var/log/messages)
+ -l n Set local log level
+ -S Smaller logging output
+ -s SIZE Max size (KB) before rotate (default:200KB, 0=off)
+ -b N N rotated logs to keep (default:1, max=99, 0=purge)
+ -R HOST[:PORT] Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
+ -L Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
+ -D Drop duplicates
+ -C[size(KiB)] Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tac"><strong>tac</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tac [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Concatenate FILEs and print them in reverse</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tail"><strong>tail</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tail [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print last 10 lines of each FILE (or standard input) to standard output.
+With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c N[kbm] Output last N bytes
+ -n N[kbm] Print last N lines instead of last 10
+ -f Output data as the file grows
+ -q Never output headers giving file names
+ -s SEC Wait SEC seconds between reads with -f
+ -v Always output headers giving file names</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output begins with
+the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N items
+in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tar"><strong>tar</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tar -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create, extract, or list files from a tar file</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ c Create
+ x Extract
+ t List
+Archive format selection:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ z Filter the archive through gzip
+ j Filter the archive through bzip2
+ a Filter the archive through lzma
+ Z Filter the archive through compress
+File selection:</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ f Name of TARFILE or &quot;-&quot; for stdin
+ O Extract to stdout
+ exclude File to exclude
+ X File with names to exclude
+ C Change to directory DIR before operation
+ v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_taskset"><strong>taskset</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+taskset [-p] [MASK] [PID | PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Set or get CPU affinity</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p Operate on an existing PID</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tcpsvd"><strong>tcpsvd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tcpsvd [-hEv] [-c N] [-C N[:MSG]] [-b N] [-u USER] [-l NAME] IP PORT PROG
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create TCP socket, bind to IP:PORT and listen
+for incoming connection. Run PROG for each connection.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ IP IP to listen on. '0' = all
+ PORT Port to listen on
+ PROG [ARGS] Program to run
+ -l NAME Local hostname (else looks up local hostname in DNS)
+ -u USER[:GRP] Change to user/group after bind
+ -c N Handle up to N connections simultaneously
+ -b N Allow a backlog of approximately N TCP SYNs
+ -C N[:MSG] Allow only up to N connections from the same IP
+ New connections from this IP address are closed
+ immediately. MSG is written to the peer before close
+ -h Look up peer's hostname
+ -E Don't set up environment variables
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tee"><strong>tee</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tee [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Append to the given FILEs, don't overwrite
+ -i Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_telnet"><strong>telnet</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+telnet [-a] [-l USER] HOST [PORT]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Connect to telnet server</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Automatic login with $USER variable
+ -l USER Automatic login as USER</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_telnetd"><strong>telnetd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+telnetd [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Handle incoming telnet connections</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l LOGIN Exec LOGIN on connect
+ -f ISSUE_FILE Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
+ -K Close connection as soon as login exits
+ (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)
+ -p PORT Port to listen on
+ -b ADDR[:PORT] Address to bind to
+ -F Run in foreground
+ -i Run as inetd service
+ -w SEC Run as inetd service in wait mode, linger time SEC
+ -S Log to syslog (implied by -i or without -F and -w)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_test"><strong>test</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+test EXPRESSION ]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Check file types, compare values etc. Return a 0/1 exit code
+depending on logical value of EXPRESSION</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tftp"><strong>tftp</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tftp [OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Transfer a file from/to tftp server</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l FILE Local FILE
+ -r FILE Remote FILE
+ -g Get file
+ -p Put file
+ -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tftpd"><strong>tftpd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tftpd [-cr] [-u USER] [DIR]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Transfer a file on tftp client's request</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>tftpd should be used as an inetd service.
+tftpd's line for inetd.conf:
+ 69 dgram udp nowait root tftpd tftpd /files/to/serve
+It also can be ran from udpsvd:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ udpsvd -vE 0.0.0.0 69 tftpd /files/to/serve</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -r Prohibit upload
+ -c Allow file creation via upload
+ -u Access files as USER</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_time"><strong>time</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+time [OPTIONS] PROG [ARGS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG. When it finishes, its resource usage is displayed.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_timeout"><strong>timeout</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG [ARGS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds.
+Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_top"><strong>top</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+top [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS] [-m]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Provide a view of process activity in real time.
+Read the status of all processes from /proc each SECONDS
+and show the status for however many processes will fit on the screen.</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_touch"><strong>touch</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+touch [-c] [-d DATE] FILE [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Don't create files
+ -d DT Date/time to use</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tr"><strong>tr</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from
+standard input, writing to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Take complement of STRING1
+ -d Delete input characters coded STRING1
+ -s Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_traceroute"><strong>traceroute</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>traceroute [-46FIldnrv] [-f 1ST_TTL] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q PROBES]
+<tr><td><td>[-s SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-g GATEWAY] [-i IFACE]
+<tr><td><td>[-z PAUSE_MSEC] HOST [BYTES]</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Trace the route to HOST</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -4, -6 Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
+ -F Set the don't fragment bit
+ -I Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
+ -l Display the ttl value of the returned packet
+ -d Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
+ -n Print numeric addresses
+ -r Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
+ -v Verbose
+ -m Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
+ -p Base UDP port number used in probes
+ (default 33434)
+ -q Number of probes per 'ttl' (default 3)
+ -s IP address to use as the source address
+ -t Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
+ -w Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)
+ -g Loose source route gateway (8 max)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_traceroute6"><strong>traceroute6</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>traceroute6 [-dnrv] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q PROBES]
+<tr><td><td>[-s SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-i IFACE]
+<tr><td><td>HOST [BYTES]</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Trace the route to HOST</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -d Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
+ -n Print numeric addresses
+ -r Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
+ -v Verbose
+ -m Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
+ -p Base UDP port number used in probes
+ (default is 33434)
+ -q Number of probes per 'ttl' (default 3)
+ -s IP address to use as the source address
+ -t Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
+ -w Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_true"><strong>true</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+true
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Return an exit code of TRUE (0)</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tty"><strong>tty</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tty
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print file name of standard input's terminal</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Print nothing, only return exit status</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_ttysize"><strong>ttysize</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+ttysize [w] [h]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print <code>dimension(s)</code> of standard input's terminal, on error return 80x25</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tunctl"><strong>tunctl</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tunctl [-f device] ([-t name] | -d name) [-u owner] [-g group] [-b]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create or delete tun interfaces</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f name tun device (/dev/net/tun)
+ -t name Create iface 'name'
+ -d name Delete iface 'name'
+ -u owner Set iface owner
+ -g group Set iface group
+ -b Brief output</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_tune2fs"><strong>tune2fs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+tune2fs [-L LABEL] BLOCKDEV
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_udhcpc"><strong>udhcpc</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>udhcpc [-Cfbnqtvo] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i INTERFACE]
+<tr><td><td>[-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script] [-O dhcp-option]... [-P N]</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -V,--vendorclass=CLASSID Vendor class identifier
+ -i,--interface=INTERFACE Interface to use (default eth0)
+ -H,-h,--hostname=HOSTNAME Client hostname
+ -c,--clientid=CLIENTID Client identifier
+ -C,--clientid-none Suppress default client identifier
+ -p,--pidfile=FILE Create pidfile
+ -r,--request=IP IP address to request
+ -s,--script=FILE Run FILE at DHCP events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
+ -t,--retries=N Send up to N discover packets
+ -T,--timeout=N Pause between packets (default 3 seconds)
+ -A,--tryagain=N Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
+ -O,--request-option=OPT Request DHCP option OPT (cumulative)
+ -o,--no-default-options Don't request any options (unless -O is also given)
+ -f,--foreground Run in foreground
+ -b,--background Background if lease is not immediately obtained
+ -S,--syslog Log to syslog too
+ -n,--now Exit with failure if lease is not immediately obtained
+ -q,--quit Quit after obtaining lease
+ -R,--release Release IP on quit
+ -P,--client-port N Use port N instead of default 68
+ -a,--arping Use arping to validate offered address</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_udhcpd"><strong>udhcpd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+udhcpd [-fS] [-P N] [configfile]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>DHCP server</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Run in foreground
+ -S Log to syslog too
+ -P N Use port N instead of default 67</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_udpsvd"><strong>udpsvd</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+udpsvd [-hEv] [-c N] [-u USER] [-l NAME] IP PORT PROG
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create UDP socket, bind to IP:PORT and wait
+for incoming packets. Run PROG for each packet,
+redirecting all further packets with same peer ip:port to it.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ IP IP to listen on. '0' = all
+ PORT Port to listen on
+ PROG [ARGS] Program to run
+ -l NAME Local hostname (else looks up local hostname in DNS)
+ -u USER[:GRP] Change to user/group after bind
+ -c N Handle up to N connections simultaneously
+ -h Look up peer's hostname
+ -E Don't set up environment variables
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_umount"><strong>umount</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+umount [OPTIONS] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Unmount file systems</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Unmount all file systems
+ -r Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
+ -l Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
+ -f Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
+ -d Free loop device if it has been used</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_uname"><strong>uname</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+uname [-amnrspv]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print system information</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Print all
+ -m The machine (hardware) type
+ -n Hostname
+ -r OS release
+ -s OS name (default)
+ -p Processor type
+ -v OS version</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_uncompress"><strong>uncompress</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+uncompress [-c] [-f] [FILE...]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress .Z file[s]</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Extract to stdout
+ -f Overwrite an existing file</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_unexpand"><strong>unexpand</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+unexpand [-f][-a][-t N] [FILE|-]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Convert spaces to tabs, writing to standard output</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a,--all Convert all blanks
+ -f,--first-only Convert only leading blanks
+ -t,--tabs=N Tabstops every N chars</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_uniq"><strong>uniq</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+uniq [-fscduw]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Discard duplicate lines</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
+ -d Only print duplicate lines
+ -u Only print unique lines
+ -f N Skip first N fields
+ -s N Skip first N chars (after any skipped fields)
+ -w N Compare N characters in line</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_unix2dos"><strong>unix2dos</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+unix2dos [OPTIONS] [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Convert FILE in-place from Unix to DOS format.
+When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -u dos2unix
+ -d unix2dos</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_unlzma"><strong>unlzma</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+unlzma [OPTIONS] [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress FILE (or standard input)</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -f Force</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_unlzop"><strong>unlzop</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+unlzop [-cfvCF] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Write to standard output
+ -f Force
+ -v Verbose
+ -F Don't store or verify checksum</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_unzip"><strong>unzip</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+unzip [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d exdir]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Extract files from ZIP archives</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -l List archive contents (with -q for short form)
+ -n Never overwrite existing files (default)
+ -o Overwrite files without prompting
+ -p Send output to stdout
+ -q Quiet
+ -x Exclude these files
+ -d Extract files into this directory</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_uptime"><strong>uptime</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+uptime
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Display the time since the last boot</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_usleep"><strong>usleep</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+usleep N
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Pause for N microseconds</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_uudecode"><strong>uudecode</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+uudecode [-o OUTFILE] [INFILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uudecode a file
+Finds outfile name in uuencoded source unless -o is given</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_uuencode"><strong>uuencode</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+uuencode [-m] [INFILE] STORED_FILENAME
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uuencode a file to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -m Use base64 encoding per RFC1521</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_vconfig"><strong>vconfig</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Create and remove virtual ethernet devices</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ add [interface-name] [vlan_id]
+ rem [vlan-name]
+ set_flag [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
+ set_egress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
+ set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
+ set_name_type [name-type]</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_vi"><strong>vi</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+vi [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Edit FILE</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
+ -R Read-only - don't write to the file
+ -H Short help regarding available features</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_vlock"><strong>vlock</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+vlock [OPTIONS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a Lock all VTs</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_volname"><strong>volname</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+volname [DEVICE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Show CD volume name of the DEVICE (default /dev/cdrom)</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_wall"><strong>wall</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+wall [FILE]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Write content of FILE or standard-input to all logged-in users</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_watch"><strong>watch</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+watch [-n seconds] [-t] PROG [ARGS]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG periodically</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -n Loop period in seconds (default 2)
+ -t Don't print header</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_watchdog"><strong>watchdog</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+watchdog [-t N[ms]] [-T N[ms]] [-F] DEV
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Periodically write to watchdog device DEV</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -T N Reboot after N seconds if not reset (default 60)
+ -t N Reset every N seconds (default 30)
+ -F Run in foreground</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Use 500ms to specify period in milliseconds</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_wc"><strong>wc</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+wc [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if
+more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard input.</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -c Print the byte counts
+ -l Print the newline counts
+ -L Print the length of the longest line
+ -w Print the word counts</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_wget"><strong>wget</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tr><td>wget [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document file]
+<tr><td><td>[--header 'header: value'] [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]
+<tr><td><td>[-U|--user-agent agent] url</table>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -s Spider mode - only check file existence
+ -c Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
+ -q Quiet
+ -P Set directory prefix to DIR
+ -O Save to filename ('-' for stdout)
+ -U Adjust 'User-Agent' field
+ -Y Use proxy ('on' or 'off')</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_which"><strong>which</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+which [COMMAND]...
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Locate a COMMAND</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_who"><strong>who</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+who [-a]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Show who is logged on</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -a show all</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_whoami"><strong>whoami</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+whoami
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Print the user name associated with the current effective user id</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_xargs"><strong>xargs</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+xargs [OPTIONS] [PROG [ARGS]]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Run PROG on every item given by standard input</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -p Ask user whether to run each command
+ -r Don't run command if input is empty
+ -0 Input is separated by NUL characters
+ -t Print the command on stderr before execution
+ -e[STR] STR stops input processing
+ -n N Pass no more than N args to PROG
+ -s N Pass command line of no more than N bytes
+ -x Exit if size is exceeded</pre>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_yes"><strong>yes</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+yes [OPTIONS] [STRING]
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_zcat"><strong>zcat</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+zcat FILE
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Uncompress to stdout</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p>
+<dt><strong><a name="item_zcip"><strong>zcip</strong></a></strong><br />
+</dt>
+<dd>
+zcip [OPTIONS] IFACE SCRIPT
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Manage a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>Options:</p>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<pre>
+ -f Run in foreground
+ -q Quit after obtaining address
+ -r 169.254.x.x Request this address first
+ -v Verbose</pre>
+</dd>
+<dd>
+<p>With no -q, runs continuously monitoring for ARP conflicts,
+exits only on I/O errors (link down etc)</p>
+</dd>
+<p></p></dl>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="libc_nss">LIBC NSS</a></h1>
+<p>GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior
+of the C library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads
+system data, such as passwords and group information. This is implemented
+using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and using one or more of the
+/lib/libnss_* libraries. BusyBox tries to avoid using any libc calls that make
+use of NSS. Some applets however, such as login and su, will use libc functions
+that require NSS.</p>
+<p>If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal functions to
+directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without
+using NSS. This may allow you to run your system without the need for
+installing any of the NSS configuration files and libraries.</p>
+<p>When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly require
+that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in particular,
+/etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*).</p>
+<p>Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc. In
+addition to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the
+use of any NSS support files or libraries.</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="maintainer">MAINTAINER</a></h1>
+<p>Denis Vlasenko &lt;<a href="mailto:vda.linux@googlemail.com">vda.linux@googlemail.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<p>
+</p>
+<hr />
+<h1><a name="authors">AUTHORS</a></h1>
+<p>The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or
+not. If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be
+listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory. If you should be
+listed here, or the description of what you have done needs more detail, or is
+incorrect, please send in an update.</p>
+<br><p>Emanuele Aina &lt;<a href="mailto:emanuele.aina@tiscali.it">emanuele.aina@tiscali.it</a>&gt;
+ run-parts</p>
+<br><p>Erik Andersen &lt;<a href="mailto:andersen@codepoet.org">andersen@codepoet.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
+ core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
+ Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
+ nobody is going to actually read.</pre>
+<br><p>Laurence Anderson &lt;<a href="mailto:l.d.anderson@warwick.ac.uk">l.d.anderson@warwick.ac.uk</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm</pre>
+<br><p>Jeff Angielski &lt;<a href="mailto:jeff@theptrgroup.com">jeff@theptrgroup.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ ftpput, ftpget</pre>
+<br><p>Edward Betts &lt;<a href="mailto:edward@debian.org">edward@debian.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ expr, hostid, logname, whoami</pre>
+<br><p>John Beppu &lt;<a href="mailto:beppu@codepoet.org">beppu@codepoet.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ du, nslookup, sort</pre>
+<br><p>Brian Candler &lt;<a href="mailto:B.Candler@pobox.com">B.Candler@pobox.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ tiny-ls(ls)</pre>
+<br><p>Randolph Chung &lt;<a href="mailto:tausq@debian.org">tausq@debian.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ fbset, ping, hostname</pre>
+<br><p>Dave Cinege &lt;<a href="mailto:dcinege@psychosis.com">dcinege@psychosis.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
+ various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance</pre>
+<br><p>Jordan Crouse &lt;<a href="mailto:jordan@cosmicpenguin.net">jordan@cosmicpenguin.net</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ ipcalc</pre>
+<br><p>Magnus Damm &lt;<a href="mailto:damm@opensource.se">damm@opensource.se</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ tftp client insmod powerpc support</pre>
+<br><p>Larry Doolittle &lt;<a href="mailto:ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov">ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.</pre>
+<br><p>Glenn Engel &lt;<a href="mailto:glenne@engel.org">glenne@engel.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ httpd</pre>
+<br><p>Gennady Feldman &lt;<a href="mailto:gfeldman@gena01.com">gfeldman@gena01.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
+ logread), various fixes.</pre>
+<br><p>Karl M. Hegbloom &lt;<a href="mailto:karlheg@debian.org">karlheg@debian.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &amp;c.</pre>
+<br><p>Daniel Jacobowitz &lt;<a href="mailto:dan@debian.org">dan@debian.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ mktemp.c</pre>
+<br><p>Matt Kraai &lt;<a href="mailto:kraai@alumni.cmu.edu">kraai@alumni.cmu.edu</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ documentation, bugfixes, test suite</pre>
+<br><p>Stephan Linz &lt;<a href="mailto:linz@li-pro.net">linz@li-pro.net</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence</pre>
+<br><p>John Lombardo &lt;<a href="mailto:john@deltanet.com">john@deltanet.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ tr</pre>
+<br><p>Glenn McGrath &lt;<a href="mailto:bug1@iinet.net.au">bug1@iinet.net.au</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ Common unarchiving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
+ nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
+ Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.</pre>
+<br><p>Manuel Novoa III &lt;<a href="mailto:mjn3@codepoet.org">mjn3@codepoet.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
+ mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
+ get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines</pre>
+<pre>
+ also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
+ ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
+ mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
+ interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route</pre>
+<br><p>Vladimir Oleynik &lt;<a href="mailto:dzo@simtreas.ru">dzo@simtreas.ru</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
+ ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
+ locale, various fixes
+ and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.</pre>
+<br><p>Bruce Perens &lt;<a href="mailto:bruce@pixar.com">bruce@pixar.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
+ still be found hiding here and there...</pre>
+<br><p>Tim Riker &lt;<a href="mailto:Tim@Rikers.org">Tim@Rikers.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ bug fixes, member of fan club</pre>
+<br><p>Kent Robotti &lt;<a href="mailto:robotti@metconnect.com">robotti@metconnect.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.</pre>
+<br><p>Chip Rosenthal &lt;<a href="mailto:chip@unicom.com">chip@unicom.com</a>&gt;, &lt;<a href="mailto:crosenth@covad.com">crosenth@covad.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications</pre>
+<br><p>Pavel Roskin &lt;<a href="mailto:proski@gnu.org">proski@gnu.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ Lots of bugs fixes and patches.</pre>
+<br><p>Gyepi Sam &lt;<a href="mailto:gyepi@praxis-sw.com">gyepi@praxis-sw.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ Remote logging feature for syslogd</pre>
+<br><p>Linus Torvalds &lt;<a href="mailto:torvalds@transmeta.com">torvalds@transmeta.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix</pre>
+<br><p>Mark Whitley &lt;<a href="mailto:markw@codepoet.org">markw@codepoet.org</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
+ style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.</pre>
+<br><p>Charles P. Wright &lt;<a href="mailto:cpwright@villagenet.com">cpwright@villagenet.com</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ gzip, mini-netcat(nc)</pre>
+<br><p>Enrique Zanardi &lt;<a href="mailto:ezanardi@ull.es">ezanardi@ull.es</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance</pre>
+<br><p>Tito Ragusa &lt;<a href="mailto:farmatito@tiscali.it">farmatito@tiscali.it</a>&gt;</p>
+<pre>
+ devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.</pre>
+
+</body>
+
+</html>