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// -*- mode:doc; -*-
// vim: set syntax=asciidoc:

=== Tips and tricks

[[package-name-variable-relation]]
==== Package name, config entry name and makefile variable relationship

In Buildroot, there is some relationship between:

* the _package name_, which is the package directory name (and the
  name of the +*.mk+ file);

* the config entry name that is declared in the +Config.in+ file;

* the makefile variable prefix.

It is mandatory to maintain consistency between these elements,
using the following rules:

* the package directory and the +*.mk+ name are the _package name_
  itself (e.g.: +package/foo-bar_boo/foo-bar_boo.mk+);

* the _make_ target name is the _package name_ itself (e.g.:
  +foo-bar_boo+);

* the config entry is the upper case _package name_ with `.` and `-`
  characters substituted with `_`, prefixed with +BR2_PACKAGE_+ (e.g.:
  +BR2_PACKAGE_FOO_BAR_BOO+);

* the +*.mk+ file variable prefix is the upper case _package name_
  with `.` and `-` characters substituted with `_` (e.g.:
  +FOO_BAR_BOO_VERSION+).

[[check-package]]
==== How to check the coding style

Buildroot provides a script in +utils/check-package+ that checks new or
changed files for coding style. It is not a complete language validator,
but it catches many common mistakes. It is meant to run in the actual
files you created or modified, before creating the patch for submission.

This script can be used for packages, filesystem makefiles, Config.in
files, etc. It does not check the files defining the package
infrastructures and some other files containing similar common code.

To use it, run the +check-package+ script, by telling which files you
created or changed:

----
$ ./utils/check-package package/new-package/*
----

If you have the +utils+ directory in your path you can also run:

----
$ cd package/new-package/
$ check-package *
----

The tool can also be used for packages in a br2-external:

----
$ check-package -b /path/to/br2-ext-tree/package/my-package/*
----

[[testing-package]]
==== How to test your package

Once you have added your new package, it is important that you test it
under various conditions: does it build for all architectures? Does it
build with the different C libraries? Does it need threads, NPTL? And
so on...

Buildroot runs http://autobuild.buildroot.org/[autobuilders] which
continuously test random configurations. However, these only build the
`master` branch of the git tree, and your new fancy package is not yet
there.

Buildroot provides a script in +utils/test-pkg+ that uses the same base
configurations as used by the autobuilders so you can test your package
in the same conditions.

First, create a config snippet that contains all the necessary options
needed to enable your package, but without any architecture or toolchain
option. For example, let's create a config snippet that just enables
+libcurl+, without any TLS backend:

----
$ cat libcurl.config
BR2_PACKAGE_LIBCURL=y
----

If your package needs more configuration options, you can add them to the
config snippet. For example, here's how you would test +libcurl+ with
+openssl+ as a TLS backend and the +curl+ program:

----
$ cat libcurl.config
BR2_PACKAGE_LIBCURL=y
BR2_PACKAGE_CURL=y
BR2_PACKAGE_OPENSSL=y
----

Then run the +test-pkg+ script, by telling it what config snippet to use
and what package to test:

----
$ ./utils/test-pkg -c libcurl.config -p libcurl
----

By default, +test-pkg+ will build your package against a subset of the
toolchains used by the autobuilders, which has been selected by the
Buildroot developers as being the most useful and representative
subset. If you want to test all toolchains, pass the +-a+ option. Note
that in any case, internal toolchains are excluded as they take too
long to build.

The output lists all toolchains that are tested and the corresponding
result (excerpt, results are fake):

----
$ ./utils/test-pkg -c libcurl.config -p libcurl
                armv5-ctng-linux-gnueabi [ 1/11]: OK
              armv7-ctng-linux-gnueabihf [ 2/11]: OK
                        br-aarch64-glibc [ 3/11]: SKIPPED
                           br-arcle-hs38 [ 4/11]: SKIPPED
                            br-arm-basic [ 5/11]: FAILED
                  br-arm-cortex-a9-glibc [ 6/11]: OK
                   br-arm-cortex-a9-musl [ 7/11]: FAILED
                   br-arm-cortex-m4-full [ 8/11]: OK
                             br-arm-full [ 9/11]: OK
                    br-arm-full-nothread [10/11]: FAILED
                      br-arm-full-static [11/11]: OK
11 builds, 2 skipped, 2 build failed, 1 legal-info failed
----

The results mean:

* `OK`: the build was successful.
* `SKIPPED`: one or more configuration options listed in the config
  snippet were not present in the final configuration. This is due to
  options having dependencies not satisfied by the toolchain, such as
  for example a package that +depends on BR2_USE_MMU+ with a noMMU
  toolchain. The missing options are reported in +missing.config+ in
  the output build directory (+~/br-test-pkg/TOOLCHAIN_NAME/+ by
  default).
* `FAILED`: the build failed. Inspect the +logfile+ file in the output
  build  directory to see what went wrong:
** the actual build failed,
** the legal-info failed,
** one of the preliminary steps (downloading the config file, applying
   the configuration, running `dirclean` for the package) failed.

When there are failures, you can just re-run the script with the same
options (after you fixed your package); the script will attempt to
re-build the package specified with +-p+ for all toolchains, without
the need to re-build all the dependencies of that package.

The +test-pkg+ script accepts a few options, for which you can get some
help by running:

----
$ ./utils/test-pkg -h
----

[[github-download-url]]
==== How to add a package from GitHub

Packages on GitHub often don't have a download area with release tarballs.
However, it is possible to download tarballs directly from the repository
on GitHub. As GitHub is known to have changed download mechanisms in the
past, the 'github' helper function should be used as shown below.

------------------------
# Use a tag or a full commit ID
FOO_VERSION = v1.0
FOO_SITE = $(call github,<user>,<package>,$(FOO_VERSION))
------------------------

.Notes
- The FOO_VERSION can either be a tag or a commit ID.
- The tarball name generated by github matches the default one from
  Buildroot (e.g.: +foo-f6fb6654af62045239caed5950bc6c7971965e60.tar.gz+),
  so it is not necessary to specify it in the +.mk+ file.
- When using a commit ID as version, you should use the full 40 hex characters.

If the package you wish to add does have a release section on GitHub, the
maintainer may have uploaded a release tarball, or the release may just point
to the automatically generated tarball from the git tag. If there is a
release tarball uploaded by the maintainer, we prefer to use that since it
may be slightly different (e.g. it contains a configure script so we don't
need to do AUTORECONF).

You can see on the release page if it's an uploaded tarball or a git tag:

image::github_hash_mongrel2.png[]

- If it looks like the image above then it was uploaded by the
  maintainer and you should use that link (in that example:
  'mongrel2-v1.9.2.tar.bz2') to specify +FOO_SITE+, and not use the
  'github' helper.

- On the other hand, if there's is *only* the "Source code" link, then
  it's an automatically generated tarball and you should use the
  'github' helper function.