|author||Denys Vlasenko <firstname.lastname@example.org>||2016-10-14 18:22:50 +0200|
|committer||Denys Vlasenko <email@example.com>||2016-10-14 18:22:50 +0200|
examples: update var_service/README
Signed-off-by: Denys Vlasenko <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'examples')
1 files changed, 130 insertions, 24 deletions
diff --git a/examples/var_service/README b/examples/var_service/README
index d096ad0b9..52dd781ef 100644
@@ -1,50 +1,149 @@
-In many cases, network configuration makes it necessary to run several daemons:
-dhcp, zeroconf, ppp, openvpn and such. They need to be controlled,
-and in many cases you also want to babysit them. runsvdir is a good tool for this.
-examples/var_service directory provides a few examples. It is meant to be used
-this way: copy it somewhere (say, /var/service) and run something like
+ Daemontools and runit
+Tired of PID files, needing root access, and writing init scripts just
+to have your UNIX apps start when your server boots? Want a simpler,
+better alternative that will also restart them if they crash? If so,
+this is an introduction to process supervision with runit/daemontools.
+Classic init scripts, e.g. /etc/init.d/apache, are widely used for
+starting processes at system boot time, when they are executed by init.
+Sadly, init scripts are cumbersome and error-prone to write, they must
+typically be edited and run as root, and the processes they launch do
+not get restarted automatically if they crash.
+In an alternative scheme called "process supervision", each important
+process is looked after by a tiny supervising process, which deals with
+starting and stopping the important process on request, and re-starting
+it when it exits unexpectedly. Those supervising processes can in turn
+be supervised by other supervising processes.
+Dan Bernstein wrote the process supervision toolkit, "daemontools",
+which is a set of small, reliable programs that cooperate in the
+UNIX tradition to manage process supervision trees.
+Runit is a more conveniently licensed and more actively maintained
+reimplementation of daemontools, written by Gerrit Pape.
+Here I’ll use runit, however, the ideas are the same for other
+daemontools-like projects (there are several).
+ Service directories and scripts
-env - PATH=... <other vars=...> runsvdir /var/service &
+In runit parlance a "service" is simply a directory containing a script
-from one of system startup scripts. (Google "man runsvdir" and "man runsv"
-for more info about these tools).
+There are just two key programs in runit. Firstly, runsv supervises the
+process for an individual service. Service directories themselves sit
+inside a containing directory, and the runsvdir program supervises that
+directory, running one child runsv process for the service in each
+subdirectory. Out of the box on Debian, for example, an instance of
+runsvdir supervises services in subdirectories of /var/service/.
-You can try or debug an individual service by running its SERVICE_DIR/run script.
+If /var/service/log/ exists, runsv will supervise two services,
+and will connect stdout of main service to the stdin of log service.
+This is primarily used for logging.
+You can debug an individual service by running its SERVICE_DIR/run script.
In this case, its stdout and stderr go to your terminal.
You can also run "runsv SERVICE_DIR", which runs both the service
and its logger service (SERVICE_DIR/log/run) if logger service exists.
If logger service exists, the output will go to it instead of the terminal.
-"runsvdir DIR" merely runs "runsv SERVICE_DIR" for every subdirectory in DIR.
+"runsvdir /var/service" merely runs "runsv SERVICE_DIR" for every subdirectory
+This directory contains some examples of services:
+Runs a getty on <tty>. (run script looks at $PWD and extracts suffix
+after "_" as tty name). Create copies (or symlinks) of this directory
+with different names to run many gettys on many ttys.
+Runs gpm, the cut and paste utility and mouse server for text consoles.
+Runs inetd. This is an example of a service with log. Log service
+writes timestamped, rotated log data to /var/log/service/inetd/*
+using "svlogd -tt". p_log and w_log scripts demonstrage how you can
+"page log" and "watch log".
+Other services which have logs handle them in the same way.
-Some existing examples:
+Runs nmeter '%t %c ....' with output to /dev/tty9. This gives you
+a 1-second sampling of server load and health on a dedicated text console.
+ Networking examples
+In many cases, network configuration makes it necessary to run several daemons:
+dhcp, zeroconf, ppp, openvpn and such. They need to be controlled,
+and in many cases you also want to babysit them.
+They present a case where different services need to control (start, stop,
+restart) eact other.
controls a udhcpc instance which provides dhpc-assigned IP
address on interface named "if". Copy/rename this directory as needed to run
udhcpc on other interfaces (var_service/dhcp_if/run script uses _foo suffix
-of the parent directory as interface name). When IP address is obtained or lost,
-var_service/dhcp_if/dhcp_handler is run. It saves new config data to
-/var/run/service/fw/dhcp_if.ipconf and (re)starts /var/service/fw service.
-This example can be used as a template for other dynamic network link services
-watches link status of interface if. Downs and ups /var/service/dhcp_if
+of the parent directory as interface name).
+When IP address is obtained or lost, var_service/dhcp_if/dhcp_handler is run.
+It saves new config data to /var/run/service/fw/dhcp_if.ipconf and (re)starts
+/var/service/fw service. This example can be used as a template for other
+dynamic network link services (ppp/vpn/zcip).
+This is an example of service with has a "finish" script. If downed ("sv d"),
+"finish" is executed. For this service, it removes DHCP address from
+Zeroconf IP service: assigns a 169.254.x.y/16 address to interface "if".
+This allows to talk to other divices on a network without DHCP server
+(if they also assign 169.254 addresses to themselves).
+Watches link status of interface "if". Downs and ups /var/service/dhcp_if
service accordingly. In effect, it allows you to unplug/plug-to-different-network
and have your IP properly re-negotiated at once.
Uses var_service/dhcp_if's data to determine router IP. Pings it.
If ping fails, restarts /var/service/dhcp_if service.
Basically, an example of watchdog service for networks which are not reliable
and need babysitting.
-A *one-shot* service which reconfigures network based on current known state
-of ALL interfaces. Uses conf/*.ipconf (static config) and /var/run/service/fw/*.ipconf
+Wireless supplicant (wifi association and encryption daemon) service for
+This is an example of *one-shot* service.
+It reconfigures network based on current known state of ALL interfaces.
+Uses conf/*.ipconf (static config) and /var/run/service/fw/*.ipconf
(dynamic config from dhcp/ppp/vpn/etc) to determine what to do.
One-shot-ness of this service means that it shuts itself off after single run.
IOW: it is not a constantly running daemon sort of thing.
It starts, it configures the network, it shuts down, all done
@@ -66,3 +165,10 @@ runsv will rerun it; or start it in a normal way if fw is not running.
System administrators are expected to edit fw/run script, since
network configuration needs are likely to be very complex and different
for non-trivial installations.
+Examples of typical network daemons.