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/* vi: set sw=4 ts=4: */
/*
 * A prototype Bourne shell grammar parser.
 * Intended to follow the original Thompson and Ritchie
 * "small and simple is beautiful" philosophy, which
 * incidentally is a good match to today's BusyBox.
 *
 * Copyright (C) 2000,2001  Larry Doolittle <larry@doolittle.boa.org>
 * Copyright (C) 2008,2009  Denys Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>
 *
 * Credits:
 *      The parser routines proper are all original material, first
 *      written Dec 2000 and Jan 2001 by Larry Doolittle.  The
 *      execution engine, the builtins, and much of the underlying
 *      support has been adapted from busybox-0.49pre's lash, which is
 *      Copyright (C) 1999-2004 by Erik Andersen <andersen@codepoet.org>
 *      written by Erik Andersen <andersen@codepoet.org>.  That, in turn,
 *      is based in part on ladsh.c, by Michael K. Johnson and Erik W.
 *      Troan, which they placed in the public domain.  I don't know
 *      how much of the Johnson/Troan code has survived the repeated
 *      rewrites.
 *
 * Other credits:
 *      o_addchr derived from similar w_addchar function in glibc-2.2.
 *      parse_redirect, redirect_opt_num, and big chunks of main
 *      and many builtins derived from contributions by Erik Andersen.
 *      Miscellaneous bugfixes from Matt Kraai.
 *
 * There are two big (and related) architecture differences between
 * this parser and the lash parser.  One is that this version is
 * actually designed from the ground up to understand nearly all
 * of the Bourne grammar.  The second, consequential change is that
 * the parser and input reader have been turned inside out.  Now,
 * the parser is in control, and asks for input as needed.  The old
 * way had the input reader in control, and it asked for parsing to
 * take place as needed.  The new way makes it much easier to properly
 * handle the recursion implicit in the various substitutions, especially
 * across continuation lines.
 *
 * TODOs:
 *      grep for "TODO" and fix (some of them are easy)
 *      special variables (done: PWD, PPID, RANDOM)
 *      tilde expansion
 *      aliases
 *      follow IFS rules more precisely, including update semantics
 *      builtins mandated by standards we don't support:
 *          [un]alias, command, fc, getopts, newgrp, readonly, times
 *      make complex ${var%...} constructs support optional
 *      make here documents optional
 *
 * Bash compat TODO:
 *      redirection of stdout+stderr: &> and >&
 *      subst operator: ${var/[/]expr/expr}
 *      brace expansion: one/{two,three,four}
 *      reserved words: function select
 *      advanced test: [[ ]]
 *      process substitution: <(list) and >(list)
 *      =~: regex operator
 *      let EXPR [EXPR...]
 *          Each EXPR is an arithmetic expression (ARITHMETIC EVALUATION)
 *          If the last arg evaluates to 0, let returns 1; 0 otherwise.
 *          NB: let `echo 'a=a + 1'` - error (IOW: multi-word expansion is used)
 *      ((EXPR))
 *          The EXPR is evaluated according to ARITHMETIC EVALUATION.
 *          This is exactly equivalent to let "EXPR".
 *      $[EXPR]: synonym for $((EXPR))
 *      export builtin should be special, its arguments are assignments
 *          and therefore expansion of them should be "one-word" expansion:
 *              $ export i=`echo 'a  b'` # export has one arg: "i=a  b"
 *          compare with:
 *              $ ls i=`echo 'a  b'`     # ls has two args: "i=a" and "b"
 *              ls: cannot access i=a: No such file or directory
 *              ls: cannot access b: No such file or directory
 *          Note1: same applies to local builtin.
 *          Note2: bash 3.2.33(1) does this only if export word itself
 *          is not quoted:
 *              $ export i=`echo 'aaa  bbb'`; echo "$i"
 *              aaa  bbb
 *              $ "export" i=`echo 'aaa  bbb'`; echo "$i"
 *              aaa
 *
 * Licensed under the GPL v2 or later, see the file LICENSE in this tarball.
 */
#include "busybox.h"  /* for APPLET_IS_NOFORK/NOEXEC */
#include <malloc.h>   /* for malloc_trim */
#include <glob.h>
/* #include <dmalloc.h> */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
# include <fnmatch.h>
#endif

#include "shell_common.h"
#include "math.h"
#include "match.h"
#if ENABLE_HUSH_RANDOM_SUPPORT
# include "random.h"
#else
# define CLEAR_RANDOM_T(rnd) ((void)0)
#endif
#ifndef PIPE_BUF
# define PIPE_BUF 4096  /* amount of buffering in a pipe */
#endif

//applet:IF_HUSH(APPLET(hush, _BB_DIR_BIN, _BB_SUID_DROP))
//applet:IF_MSH(APPLET(msh, _BB_DIR_BIN, _BB_SUID_DROP))
//applet:IF_LASH(APPLET(lash, _BB_DIR_BIN, _BB_SUID_DROP))
//applet:IF_FEATURE_SH_IS_HUSH(APPLET_ODDNAME(sh, hush, _BB_DIR_BIN, _BB_SUID_DROP, sh))
//applet:IF_FEATURE_BASH_IS_HUSH(APPLET_ODDNAME(bash, hush, _BB_DIR_BIN, _BB_SUID_DROP, bash))

//kbuild:lib-$(CONFIG_HUSH) += hush.o match.o shell_common.o
//kbuild:lib-$(CONFIG_HUSH_RANDOM_SUPPORT) += random.o

//config:config HUSH
//config:	bool "hush"
//config:	default y
//config:	help
//config:	  hush is a small shell (25k). It handles the normal flow control
//config:	  constructs such as if/then/elif/else/fi, for/in/do/done, while loops,
//config:	  case/esac. Redirections, here documents, $((arithmetic))
//config:	  and functions are supported.
//config:
//config:	  It will compile and work on no-mmu systems.
//config:
//config:	  It does not handle select, aliases, brace expansion,
//config:	  tilde expansion, &>file and >&file redirection of stdout+stderr.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
//config:	bool "bash-compatible extensions"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable bash-compatible extensions.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_HELP
//config:	bool "help builtin"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable help builtin in hush. Code size + ~1 kbyte.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_INTERACTIVE
//config:	bool "Interactive mode"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable interactive mode (prompt and command editing).
//config:	  Without this, hush simply reads and executes commands
//config:	  from stdin just like a shell script from a file.
//config:	  No prompt, no PS1/PS2 magic shell variables.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_JOB
//config:	bool "Job control"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH_INTERACTIVE
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable job control: Ctrl-Z backgrounds, Ctrl-C interrupts current
//config:	  command (not entire shell), fg/bg builtins work. Without this option,
//config:	  "cmd &" still works by simply spawning a process and immediately
//config:	  prompting for next command (or executing next command in a script),
//config:	  but no separate process group is formed.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_TICK
//config:	bool "Process substitution"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable process substitution `command` and $(command) in hush.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_IF
//config:	bool "Support if/then/elif/else/fi"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable if/then/elif/else/fi in hush.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_LOOPS
//config:	bool "Support for, while and until loops"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable for, while and until loops in hush.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_CASE
//config:	bool "Support case ... esac statement"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable case ... esac statement in hush. +400 bytes.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_FUNCTIONS
//config:	bool "Support funcname() { commands; } syntax"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable support for shell functions in hush. +800 bytes.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_LOCAL
//config:	bool "Support local builtin"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH_FUNCTIONS
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable support for local variables in functions.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_RANDOM_SUPPORT
//config:	bool "Pseudorandom generator and $RANDOM variable"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  Enable pseudorandom generator and dynamic variable "$RANDOM".
//config:	  Each read of "$RANDOM" will generate a new pseudorandom value.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_EXPORT_N
//config:	bool "Support 'export -n' option"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  export -n unexports variables. It is a bash extension.
//config:
//config:config HUSH_MODE_X
//config:	bool "Support 'hush -x' option and 'set -x' command"
//config:	default y
//config:	depends on HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  This instructs hush to print commands before execution.
//config:	  Adds ~300 bytes.
//config:
//config:config LASH
//config:	bool "lash (deprecated: aliased to hush)"
//config:	default n
//config:	select HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  lash is deprecated and will be removed, please migrate to hush.
//config:
//config:config MSH
//config:	bool "msh (deprecated: aliased to hush)"
//config:	default n
//config:	select HUSH
//config:	help
//config:	  msh is deprecated and will be removed, please migrate to hush.
//config:

//usage:#define hush_trivial_usage NOUSAGE_STR
//usage:#define hush_full_usage ""
//usage:#define lash_trivial_usage NOUSAGE_STR
//usage:#define lash_full_usage ""
//usage:#define msh_trivial_usage NOUSAGE_STR
//usage:#define msh_full_usage ""


/* Build knobs */
#define LEAK_HUNTING 0
#define BUILD_AS_NOMMU 0
/* Enable/disable sanity checks. Ok to enable in production,
 * only adds a bit of bloat. Set to >1 to get non-production level verbosity.
 * Keeping 1 for now even in released versions.
 */
#define HUSH_DEBUG 1
/* Slightly bigger (+200 bytes), but faster hush.
 * So far it only enables a trick with counting SIGCHLDs and forks,
 * which allows us to do fewer waitpid's.
 * (we can detect a case where neither forks were done nor SIGCHLDs happened
 * and therefore waitpid will return the same result as last time)
 */
#define ENABLE_HUSH_FAST 0
/* TODO: implement simplified code for users which do not need ${var%...} ops
 * So far ${var%...} ops are always enabled:
 */
#define ENABLE_HUSH_DOLLAR_OPS 1


#if BUILD_AS_NOMMU
# undef BB_MMU
# undef USE_FOR_NOMMU
# undef USE_FOR_MMU
# define BB_MMU 0
# define USE_FOR_NOMMU(...) __VA_ARGS__
# define USE_FOR_MMU(...)
#endif

#include "NUM_APPLETS.h"
#if NUM_APPLETS == 1
/* STANDALONE does not make sense, and won't compile */
# undef CONFIG_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE
# undef ENABLE_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE
# undef IF_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE
# undef IF_NOT_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE
# define ENABLE_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE 0
# define IF_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE(...)
# define IF_NOT_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE(...) __VA_ARGS__
#endif

#if !ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
# undef ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING
# define ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING 0
# undef ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING_FANCY_PROMPT
# define ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING_FANCY_PROMPT 0
#endif

/* Do we support ANY keywords? */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_IF || ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS || ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
# define HAS_KEYWORDS 1
# define IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(...) __VA_ARGS__
# define IF_HAS_NO_KEYWORDS(...)
#else
# define HAS_KEYWORDS 0
# define IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(...)
# define IF_HAS_NO_KEYWORDS(...) __VA_ARGS__
#endif

/* If you comment out one of these below, it will be #defined later
 * to perform debug printfs to stderr: */
#define debug_printf(...)        do {} while (0)
/* Finer-grained debug switches */
#define debug_printf_parse(...)  do {} while (0)
#define debug_print_tree(a, b)   do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_exec(...)   do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_env(...)    do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_jobs(...)   do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_expand(...) do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_varexp(...) do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_glob(...)   do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_list(...)   do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_subst(...)  do {} while (0)
#define debug_printf_clean(...)  do {} while (0)

#define ERR_PTR ((void*)(long)1)

#define JOB_STATUS_FORMAT    "[%d] %-22s %.40s\n"

#define _SPECIAL_VARS_STR     "_*@$!?#"
#define SPECIAL_VARS_STR     ("_*@$!?#" + 1)
#define NUMERIC_SPECVARS_STR ("_*@$!?#" + 3)

#define SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL   3

struct variable;

static const char hush_version_str[] ALIGN1 = "HUSH_VERSION="BB_VER;

/* This supports saving pointers malloced in vfork child,
 * to be freed in the parent.
 */
#if !BB_MMU
typedef struct nommu_save_t {
	char **new_env;
	struct variable *old_vars;
	char **argv;
	char **argv_from_re_execing;
} nommu_save_t;
#endif

typedef enum reserved_style {
	RES_NONE  = 0,
#if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
	RES_IF    ,
	RES_THEN  ,
	RES_ELIF  ,
	RES_ELSE  ,
	RES_FI    ,
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	RES_FOR   ,
	RES_WHILE ,
	RES_UNTIL ,
	RES_DO    ,
	RES_DONE  ,
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS || ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	RES_IN    ,
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	RES_CASE  ,
	/* three pseudo-keywords support contrived "case" syntax: */
	RES_CASE_IN,   /* "case ... IN", turns into RES_MATCH when IN is observed */
	RES_MATCH ,    /* "word)" */
	RES_CASE_BODY, /* "this command is inside CASE" */
	RES_ESAC  ,
#endif
	RES_XXXX  ,
	RES_SNTX
} reserved_style;

typedef struct o_string {
	char *data;
	int length; /* position where data is appended */
	int maxlen;
	/* Protect newly added chars against globbing
	 * (by prepending \ to *, ?, [, \) */
	smallint o_escape;
	smallint o_glob;
	/* At least some part of the string was inside '' or "",
	 * possibly empty one: word"", wo''rd etc. */
	smallint o_quoted;
	smallint has_empty_slot;
	smallint o_assignment; /* 0:maybe, 1:yes, 2:no */
} o_string;
enum {
	MAYBE_ASSIGNMENT = 0,
	DEFINITELY_ASSIGNMENT = 1,
	NOT_ASSIGNMENT = 2,
	WORD_IS_KEYWORD = 3, /* not assigment, but next word may be: "if v=xyz cmd;" */
};
/* Used for initialization: o_string foo = NULL_O_STRING; */
#define NULL_O_STRING { NULL }

/* I can almost use ordinary FILE*.  Is open_memstream() universally
 * available?  Where is it documented? */
typedef struct in_str {
	const char *p;
	/* eof_flag=1: last char in ->p is really an EOF */
	char eof_flag; /* meaningless if ->p == NULL */
	char peek_buf[2];
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
	smallint promptme;
	smallint promptmode; /* 0: PS1, 1: PS2 */
#endif
	FILE *file;
	int (*get) (struct in_str *) FAST_FUNC;
	int (*peek) (struct in_str *) FAST_FUNC;
} in_str;
#define i_getch(input) ((input)->get(input))
#define i_peek(input) ((input)->peek(input))

/* The descrip member of this structure is only used to make
 * debugging output pretty */
static const struct {
	int mode;
	signed char default_fd;
	char descrip[3];
} redir_table[] = {
	{ O_RDONLY,                  0, "<"  },
	{ O_CREAT|O_TRUNC|O_WRONLY,  1, ">"  },
	{ O_CREAT|O_APPEND|O_WRONLY, 1, ">>" },
	{ O_CREAT|O_RDWR,            1, "<>" },
	{ O_RDONLY,                  0, "<<" },
/* Should not be needed. Bogus default_fd helps in debugging */
/*	{ O_RDONLY,                 77, "<<" }, */
};

struct redir_struct {
	struct redir_struct *next;
	char *rd_filename;          /* filename */
	int rd_fd;                  /* fd to redirect */
	/* fd to redirect to, or -3 if rd_fd is to be closed (n>&-) */
	int rd_dup;
	smallint rd_type;           /* (enum redir_type) */
	/* note: for heredocs, rd_filename contains heredoc delimiter,
	 * and subsequently heredoc itself; and rd_dup is a bitmask:
	 * bit 0: do we need to trim leading tabs?
	 * bit 1: is heredoc quoted (<<'delim' syntax) ?
	 */
};
typedef enum redir_type {
	REDIRECT_INPUT     = 0,
	REDIRECT_OVERWRITE = 1,
	REDIRECT_APPEND    = 2,
	REDIRECT_IO        = 3,
	REDIRECT_HEREDOC   = 4,
	REDIRECT_HEREDOC2  = 5, /* REDIRECT_HEREDOC after heredoc is loaded */

	REDIRFD_CLOSE      = -3,
	REDIRFD_SYNTAX_ERR = -2,
	REDIRFD_TO_FILE    = -1,
	/* otherwise, rd_fd is redirected to rd_dup */

	HEREDOC_SKIPTABS = 1,
	HEREDOC_QUOTED   = 2,
} redir_type;


struct command {
	pid_t pid;                  /* 0 if exited */
	int assignment_cnt;         /* how many argv[i] are assignments? */
	smallint is_stopped;        /* is the command currently running? */
	smallint cmd_type;          /* CMD_xxx */
#define CMD_NORMAL   0
#define CMD_SUBSHELL 1

/* used for "[[ EXPR ]]" */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
# define CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB 2
#endif

/* used for "export noglob=* glob* a=`echo a b`" */
//#define CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND 3
// It is hard to implement correctly, it adds significant amounts of tricky code,
// and all this is only useful for really obscure export statements
// almost nobody would use anyway. #ifdef CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND
// guards the code which implements it, but I have doubts it works
// in all cases (especially with mixed globbed/non-globbed arguments)

#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
# define CMD_FUNCDEF 3
#endif

	/* if non-NULL, this "command" is { list }, ( list ), or a compound statement */
	struct pipe *group;
#if !BB_MMU
	char *group_as_string;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	struct function *child_func;
/* This field is used to prevent a bug here:
 * while...do f1() {a;}; f1; f1() {b;}; f1; done
 * When we execute "f1() {a;}" cmd, we create new function and clear
 * cmd->group, cmd->group_as_string, cmd->argv[0].
 * When we execute "f1() {b;}", we notice that f1 exists,
 * and that its "parent cmd" struct is still "alive",
 * we put those fields back into cmd->xxx
 * (struct function has ->parent_cmd ptr to facilitate that).
 * When we loop back, we can execute "f1() {a;}" again and set f1 correctly.
 * Without this trick, loop would execute a;b;b;b;...
 * instead of correct sequence a;b;a;b;...
 * When command is freed, it severs the link
 * (sets ->child_func->parent_cmd to NULL).
 */
#endif
	char **argv;                /* command name and arguments */
/* argv vector may contain variable references (^Cvar^C, ^C0^C etc)
 * and on execution these are substituted with their values.
 * Substitution can make _several_ words out of one argv[n]!
 * Example: argv[0]=='.^C*^C.' here: echo .$*.
 * References of the form ^C`cmd arg^C are `cmd arg` substitutions.
 */
	struct redir_struct *redirects; /* I/O redirections */
};
/* Is there anything in this command at all? */
#define IS_NULL_CMD(cmd) \
	(!(cmd)->group && !(cmd)->argv && !(cmd)->redirects)


struct pipe {
	struct pipe *next;
	int num_cmds;               /* total number of commands in pipe */
	int alive_cmds;             /* number of commands running (not exited) */
	int stopped_cmds;           /* number of commands alive, but stopped */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	int jobid;                  /* job number */
	pid_t pgrp;                 /* process group ID for the job */
	char *cmdtext;              /* name of job */
#endif
	struct command *cmds;       /* array of commands in pipe */
	smallint followup;          /* PIPE_BG, PIPE_SEQ, PIPE_OR, PIPE_AND */
	IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(smallint pi_inverted;) /* "! cmd | cmd" */
	IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(smallint res_word;) /* needed for if, for, while, until... */
};
typedef enum pipe_style {
	PIPE_SEQ = 1,
	PIPE_AND = 2,
	PIPE_OR  = 3,
	PIPE_BG  = 4,
} pipe_style;
/* Is there anything in this pipe at all? */
#define IS_NULL_PIPE(pi) \
	((pi)->num_cmds == 0 IF_HAS_KEYWORDS( && (pi)->res_word == RES_NONE))

/* This holds pointers to the various results of parsing */
struct parse_context {
	/* linked list of pipes */
	struct pipe *list_head;
	/* last pipe (being constructed right now) */
	struct pipe *pipe;
	/* last command in pipe (being constructed right now) */
	struct command *command;
	/* last redirect in command->redirects list */
	struct redir_struct *pending_redirect;
#if !BB_MMU
	o_string as_string;
#endif
#if HAS_KEYWORDS
	smallint ctx_res_w;
	smallint ctx_inverted; /* "! cmd | cmd" */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	smallint ctx_dsemicolon; /* ";;" seen */
#endif
	/* bitmask of FLAG_xxx, for figuring out valid reserved words */
	int old_flag;
	/* group we are enclosed in:
	 * example: "if pipe1; pipe2; then pipe3; fi"
	 * when we see "if" or "then", we malloc and copy current context,
	 * and make ->stack point to it. then we parse pipeN.
	 * when closing "then" / fi" / whatever is found,
	 * we move list_head into ->stack->command->group,
	 * copy ->stack into current context, and delete ->stack.
	 * (parsing of { list } and ( list ) doesn't use this method)
	 */
	struct parse_context *stack;
#endif
};

/* On program start, environ points to initial environment.
 * putenv adds new pointers into it, unsetenv removes them.
 * Neither of these (de)allocates the strings.
 * setenv allocates new strings in malloc space and does putenv,
 * and thus setenv is unusable (leaky) for shell's purposes */
#define setenv(...) setenv_is_leaky_dont_use()
struct variable {
	struct variable *next;
	char *varstr;        /* points to "name=" portion */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
	unsigned func_nest_level;
#endif
	int max_len;         /* if > 0, name is part of initial env; else name is malloced */
	smallint flg_export; /* putenv should be done on this var */
	smallint flg_read_only;
};

enum {
	BC_BREAK = 1,
	BC_CONTINUE = 2,
};

#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
struct function {
	struct function *next;
	char *name;
	struct command *parent_cmd;
	struct pipe *body;
# if !BB_MMU
	char *body_as_string;
# endif
};
#endif


/* "Globals" within this file */
/* Sorted roughly by size (smaller offsets == smaller code) */
struct globals {
	/* interactive_fd != 0 means we are an interactive shell.
	 * If we are, then saved_tty_pgrp can also be != 0, meaning
	 * that controlling tty is available. With saved_tty_pgrp == 0,
	 * job control still works, but terminal signals
	 * (^C, ^Z, ^Y, ^\) won't work at all, and background
	 * process groups can only be created with "cmd &".
	 * With saved_tty_pgrp != 0, hush will use tcsetpgrp()
	 * to give tty to the foreground process group,
	 * and will take it back when the group is stopped (^Z)
	 * or killed (^C).
	 */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
	/* 'interactive_fd' is a fd# open to ctty, if we have one
	 * _AND_ if we decided to act interactively */
	int interactive_fd;
	const char *PS1;
	const char *PS2;
# define G_interactive_fd (G.interactive_fd)
#else
# define G_interactive_fd 0
#endif
#if ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING
	line_input_t *line_input_state;
#endif
	pid_t root_pid;
	pid_t root_ppid;
	pid_t last_bg_pid;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_RANDOM_SUPPORT
	random_t random_gen;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	int run_list_level;
	int last_jobid;
	pid_t saved_tty_pgrp;
	struct pipe *job_list;
# define G_saved_tty_pgrp (G.saved_tty_pgrp)
#else
# define G_saved_tty_pgrp 0
#endif
	smallint flag_SIGINT;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	smallint flag_break_continue;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	/* 0: outside of a function (or sourced file)
	 * -1: inside of a function, ok to use return builtin
	 * 1: return is invoked, skip all till end of func
	 */
	smallint flag_return_in_progress;
#endif
	smallint n_mode;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_MODE_X
	smallint x_mode;
# define G_x_mode (G.x_mode)
#else
# define G_x_mode 0
#endif
	smallint exiting; /* used to prevent EXIT trap recursion */
	/* These four support $?, $#, and $1 */
	smalluint last_exitcode;
	/* are global_argv and global_argv[1..n] malloced? (note: not [0]) */
	smalluint global_args_malloced;
	smalluint inherited_set_is_saved;
	/* how many non-NULL argv's we have. NB: $# + 1 */
	int global_argc;
	char **global_argv;
#if !BB_MMU
	char *argv0_for_re_execing;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	unsigned depth_break_continue;
	unsigned depth_of_loop;
#endif
	const char *ifs;
	const char *cwd;
	struct variable *top_var; /* = &G.shell_ver (set in main()) */
	struct variable shell_ver;
	char **expanded_assignments;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	struct function *top_func;
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
	struct variable **shadowed_vars_pp;
	unsigned func_nest_level;
# endif
#endif
	/* Signal and trap handling */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
	unsigned count_SIGCHLD;
	unsigned handled_SIGCHLD;
	smallint we_have_children;
#endif
	/* which signals have non-DFL handler (even with no traps set)? */
	unsigned non_DFL_mask;
	char **traps; /* char *traps[NSIG] */
	sigset_t blocked_set;
	sigset_t inherited_set;
#if HUSH_DEBUG
	unsigned long memleak_value;
	int debug_indent;
#endif
	char user_input_buf[ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING ? CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_MAX_LEN : 2];
};
#define G (*ptr_to_globals)
/* Not #defining name to G.name - this quickly gets unwieldy
 * (too many defines). Also, I actually prefer to see when a variable
 * is global, thus "G." prefix is a useful hint */
#define INIT_G() do { \
	SET_PTR_TO_GLOBALS(xzalloc(sizeof(G))); \
} while (0)


/* Function prototypes for builtins */
static int builtin_cd(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_echo(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_eval(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_exec(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_exit(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_export(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
static int builtin_fg_bg(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_jobs(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_HELP
static int builtin_help(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
static int builtin_local(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif
#if HUSH_DEBUG
static int builtin_memleak(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif
#if ENABLE_PRINTF
static int builtin_printf(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif
static int builtin_pwd(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_read(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_set(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_shift(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_source(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_test(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_trap(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_type(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_true(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_umask(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_unset(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_wait(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
static int builtin_break(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
static int builtin_continue(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
static int builtin_return(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#endif

/* Table of built-in functions.  They can be forked or not, depending on
 * context: within pipes, they fork.  As simple commands, they do not.
 * When used in non-forking context, they can change global variables
 * in the parent shell process.  If forked, of course they cannot.
 * For example, 'unset foo | whatever' will parse and run, but foo will
 * still be set at the end. */
struct built_in_command {
	const char *b_cmd;
	int (*b_function)(char **argv) FAST_FUNC;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_HELP
	const char *b_descr;
# define BLTIN(cmd, func, help) { cmd, func, help }
#else
# define BLTIN(cmd, func, help) { cmd, func }
#endif
};

static const struct built_in_command bltins1[] = {
	BLTIN("."        , builtin_source  , "Run commands in a file"),
	BLTIN(":"        , builtin_true    , NULL),
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	BLTIN("bg"       , builtin_fg_bg   , "Resume a job in the background"),
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	BLTIN("break"    , builtin_break   , "Exit from a loop"),
#endif
	BLTIN("cd"       , builtin_cd      , "Change directory"),
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	BLTIN("continue" , builtin_continue, "Start new loop iteration"),
#endif
	BLTIN("eval"     , builtin_eval    , "Construct and run shell command"),
	BLTIN("exec"     , builtin_exec    , "Execute command, don't return to shell"),
	BLTIN("exit"     , builtin_exit    , "Exit"),
	BLTIN("export"   , builtin_export  , "Set environment variables"),
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	BLTIN("fg"       , builtin_fg_bg   , "Bring job into the foreground"),
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_HELP
	BLTIN("help"     , builtin_help    , NULL),
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	BLTIN("jobs"     , builtin_jobs    , "List jobs"),
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
	BLTIN("local"    , builtin_local   , "Set local variables"),
#endif
#if HUSH_DEBUG
	BLTIN("memleak"  , builtin_memleak , NULL),
#endif
	BLTIN("read"     , builtin_read    , "Input into variable"),
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	BLTIN("return"   , builtin_return  , "Return from a function"),
#endif
	BLTIN("set"      , builtin_set     , "Set/unset positional parameters"),
	BLTIN("shift"    , builtin_shift   , "Shift positional parameters"),
#if ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
	BLTIN("source"   , builtin_source  , "Run commands in a file"),
#endif
	BLTIN("trap"     , builtin_trap    , "Trap signals"),
	BLTIN("type"     , builtin_type    , "Show command type"),
	BLTIN("ulimit"   , shell_builtin_ulimit  , "Control resource limits"),
	BLTIN("umask"    , builtin_umask   , "Set file creation mask"),
	BLTIN("unset"    , builtin_unset   , "Unset variables"),
	BLTIN("wait"     , builtin_wait    , "Wait for process"),
};
/* For now, echo and test are unconditionally enabled.
 * Maybe make it configurable? */
static const struct built_in_command bltins2[] = {
	BLTIN("["        , builtin_test    , NULL),
	BLTIN("echo"     , builtin_echo    , NULL),
#if ENABLE_PRINTF
	BLTIN("printf"   , builtin_printf  , NULL),
#endif
	BLTIN("pwd"      , builtin_pwd     , NULL),
	BLTIN("test"     , builtin_test    , NULL),
};


/* Debug printouts.
 */
#if HUSH_DEBUG
/* prevent disasters with G.debug_indent < 0 */
# define indent() fprintf(stderr, "%*s", (G.debug_indent * 2) & 0xff, "")
# define debug_enter() (G.debug_indent++)
# define debug_leave() (G.debug_indent--)
#else
# define indent()      ((void)0)
# define debug_enter() ((void)0)
# define debug_leave() ((void)0)
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf
# define debug_printf(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_parse
# define debug_printf_parse(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_exec
#define debug_printf_exec(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_env
# define debug_printf_env(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_jobs
# define debug_printf_jobs(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
# define DEBUG_JOBS 1
#else
# define DEBUG_JOBS 0
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_expand
# define debug_printf_expand(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
# define DEBUG_EXPAND 1
#else
# define DEBUG_EXPAND 0
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_varexp
# define debug_printf_varexp(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_glob
# define debug_printf_glob(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
# define DEBUG_GLOB 1
#else
# define DEBUG_GLOB 0
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_list
# define debug_printf_list(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_subst
# define debug_printf_subst(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
#endif

#ifndef debug_printf_clean
# define debug_printf_clean(...) (indent(), fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__))
# define DEBUG_CLEAN 1
#else
# define DEBUG_CLEAN 0
#endif

#if DEBUG_EXPAND
static void debug_print_strings(const char *prefix, char **vv)
{
	indent();
	fprintf(stderr, "%s:\n", prefix);
	while (*vv)
		fprintf(stderr, " '%s'\n", *vv++);
}
#else
# define debug_print_strings(prefix, vv) ((void)0)
#endif


/* Leak hunting. Use hush_leaktool.sh for post-processing.
 */
#if LEAK_HUNTING
static void *xxmalloc(int lineno, size_t size)
{
	void *ptr = xmalloc((size + 0xff) & ~0xff);
	fdprintf(2, "line %d: malloc %p\n", lineno, ptr);
	return ptr;
}
static void *xxrealloc(int lineno, void *ptr, size_t size)
{
	ptr = xrealloc(ptr, (size + 0xff) & ~0xff);
	fdprintf(2, "line %d: realloc %p\n", lineno, ptr);
	return ptr;
}
static char *xxstrdup(int lineno, const char *str)
{
	char *ptr = xstrdup(str);
	fdprintf(2, "line %d: strdup %p\n", lineno, ptr);
	return ptr;
}
static void xxfree(void *ptr)
{
	fdprintf(2, "free %p\n", ptr);
	free(ptr);
}
# define xmalloc(s)     xxmalloc(__LINE__, s)
# define xrealloc(p, s) xxrealloc(__LINE__, p, s)
# define xstrdup(s)     xxstrdup(__LINE__, s)
# define free(p)        xxfree(p)
#endif


/* Syntax and runtime errors. They always abort scripts.
 * In interactive use they usually discard unparsed and/or unexecuted commands
 * and return to the prompt.
 * HUSH_DEBUG >= 2 prints line number in this file where it was detected.
 */
#if HUSH_DEBUG < 2
# define die_if_script(lineno, ...)             die_if_script(__VA_ARGS__)
# define syntax_error(lineno, msg)              syntax_error(msg)
# define syntax_error_at(lineno, msg)           syntax_error_at(msg)
# define syntax_error_unterm_ch(lineno, ch)     syntax_error_unterm_ch(ch)
# define syntax_error_unterm_str(lineno, s)     syntax_error_unterm_str(s)
# define syntax_error_unexpected_ch(lineno, ch) syntax_error_unexpected_ch(ch)
#endif

static void die_if_script(unsigned lineno, const char *fmt, ...)
{
	va_list p;

#if HUSH_DEBUG >= 2
	bb_error_msg("hush.c:%u", lineno);
#endif
	va_start(p, fmt);
	bb_verror_msg(fmt, p, NULL);
	va_end(p);
	if (!G_interactive_fd)
		xfunc_die();
}

static void syntax_error(unsigned lineno, const char *msg)
{
	if (msg)
		die_if_script(lineno, "syntax error: %s", msg);
	else
		die_if_script(lineno, "syntax error", NULL);
}

static void syntax_error_at(unsigned lineno, const char *msg)
{
	die_if_script(lineno, "syntax error at '%s'", msg);
}

static void syntax_error_unterm_str(unsigned lineno, const char *s)
{
	die_if_script(lineno, "syntax error: unterminated %s", s);
}

/* It so happens that all such cases are totally fatal
 * even if shell is interactive: EOF while looking for closing
 * delimiter. There is nowhere to read stuff from after that,
 * it's EOF! The only choice is to terminate.
 */
static void syntax_error_unterm_ch(unsigned lineno, char ch) NORETURN;
static void syntax_error_unterm_ch(unsigned lineno, char ch)
{
	char msg[2] = { ch, '\0' };
	syntax_error_unterm_str(lineno, msg);
	xfunc_die();
}

static void syntax_error_unexpected_ch(unsigned lineno, int ch)
{
	char msg[2];
	msg[0] = ch;
	msg[1] = '\0';
	die_if_script(lineno, "syntax error: unexpected %s", ch == EOF ? "EOF" : msg);
}

#if HUSH_DEBUG < 2
# undef die_if_script
# undef syntax_error
# undef syntax_error_at
# undef syntax_error_unterm_ch
# undef syntax_error_unterm_str
# undef syntax_error_unexpected_ch
#else
# define die_if_script(...)             die_if_script(__LINE__, __VA_ARGS__)
# define syntax_error(msg)              syntax_error(__LINE__, msg)
# define syntax_error_at(msg)           syntax_error_at(__LINE__, msg)
# define syntax_error_unterm_ch(ch)     syntax_error_unterm_ch(__LINE__, ch)
# define syntax_error_unterm_str(s)     syntax_error_unterm_str(__LINE__, s)
# define syntax_error_unexpected_ch(ch) syntax_error_unexpected_ch(__LINE__, ch)
#endif


#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
static void cmdedit_update_prompt(void);
#else
# define cmdedit_update_prompt() ((void)0)
#endif


/* Utility functions
 */
/* Replace each \x with x in place, return ptr past NUL. */
static char *unbackslash(char *src)
{
	char *dst = src = strchrnul(src, '\\');
	while (1) {
		if (*src == '\\')
			src++;
		if ((*dst++ = *src++) == '\0')
			break;
	}
	return dst;
}

static char **add_strings_to_strings(char **strings, char **add, int need_to_dup)
{
	int i;
	unsigned count1;
	unsigned count2;
	char **v;

	v = strings;
	count1 = 0;
	if (v) {
		while (*v) {
			count1++;
			v++;
		}
	}
	count2 = 0;
	v = add;
	while (*v) {
		count2++;
		v++;
	}
	v = xrealloc(strings, (count1 + count2 + 1) * sizeof(char*));
	v[count1 + count2] = NULL;
	i = count2;
	while (--i >= 0)
		v[count1 + i] = (need_to_dup ? xstrdup(add[i]) : add[i]);
	return v;
}
#if LEAK_HUNTING
static char **xx_add_strings_to_strings(int lineno, char **strings, char **add, int need_to_dup)
{
	char **ptr = add_strings_to_strings(strings, add, need_to_dup);
	fdprintf(2, "line %d: add_strings_to_strings %p\n", lineno, ptr);
	return ptr;
}
#define add_strings_to_strings(strings, add, need_to_dup) \
	xx_add_strings_to_strings(__LINE__, strings, add, need_to_dup)
#endif

/* Note: takes ownership of "add" ptr (it is not strdup'ed) */
static char **add_string_to_strings(char **strings, char *add)
{
	char *v[2];
	v[0] = add;
	v[1] = NULL;
	return add_strings_to_strings(strings, v, /*dup:*/ 0);
}
#if LEAK_HUNTING
static char **xx_add_string_to_strings(int lineno, char **strings, char *add)
{
	char **ptr = add_string_to_strings(strings, add);
	fdprintf(2, "line %d: add_string_to_strings %p\n", lineno, ptr);
	return ptr;
}
#define add_string_to_strings(strings, add) \
	xx_add_string_to_strings(__LINE__, strings, add)
#endif

static void free_strings(char **strings)
{
	char **v;

	if (!strings)
		return;
	v = strings;
	while (*v) {
		free(*v);
		v++;
	}
	free(strings);
}


/* Helpers for setting new $n and restoring them back
 */
typedef struct save_arg_t {
	char *sv_argv0;
	char **sv_g_argv;
	int sv_g_argc;
	smallint sv_g_malloced;
} save_arg_t;

static void save_and_replace_G_args(save_arg_t *sv, char **argv)
{
	int n;

	sv->sv_argv0 = argv[0];
	sv->sv_g_argv = G.global_argv;
	sv->sv_g_argc = G.global_argc;
	sv->sv_g_malloced = G.global_args_malloced;

	argv[0] = G.global_argv[0]; /* retain $0 */
	G.global_argv = argv;
	G.global_args_malloced = 0;

	n = 1;
	while (*++argv)
		n++;
	G.global_argc = n;
}

static void restore_G_args(save_arg_t *sv, char **argv)
{
	char **pp;

	if (G.global_args_malloced) {
		/* someone ran "set -- arg1 arg2 ...", undo */
		pp = G.global_argv;
		while (*++pp) /* note: does not free $0 */
			free(*pp);
		free(G.global_argv);
	}
	argv[0] = sv->sv_argv0;
	G.global_argv = sv->sv_g_argv;
	G.global_argc = sv->sv_g_argc;
	G.global_args_malloced = sv->sv_g_malloced;
}


/* Basic theory of signal handling in shell
 * ========================================
 * This does not describe what hush does, rather, it is current understanding
 * what it _should_ do. If it doesn't, it's a bug.
 * http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/V3_chap02.html#trap
 *
 * Signals are handled only after each pipe ("cmd | cmd | cmd" thing)
 * is finished or backgrounded. It is the same in interactive and
 * non-interactive shells, and is the same regardless of whether
 * a user trap handler is installed or a shell special one is in effect.
 * ^C or ^Z from keyboard seems to execute "at once" because it usually
 * backgrounds (i.e. stops) or kills all members of currently running
 * pipe.
 *
 * Wait builtin in interruptible by signals for which user trap is set
 * or by SIGINT in interactive shell.
 *
 * Trap handlers will execute even within trap handlers. (right?)
 *
 * User trap handlers are forgotten when subshell ("(cmd)") is entered,
 * except for handlers set to '' (empty string).
 *
 * If job control is off, backgrounded commands ("cmd &")
 * have SIGINT, SIGQUIT set to SIG_IGN.
 *
 * Commands which are run in command substitution ("`cmd`")
 * have SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP set to SIG_IGN.
 *
 * Ordinary commands have signals set to SIG_IGN/DFL as inherited
 * by the shell from its parent.
 *
 * Signals which differ from SIG_DFL action
 * (note: child (i.e., [v]forked) shell is not an interactive shell):
 *
 * SIGQUIT: ignore
 * SIGTERM (interactive): ignore
 * SIGHUP (interactive):
 *    send SIGCONT to stopped jobs, send SIGHUP to all jobs and exit
 * SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP (if job control is on): ignore
 *    Note that ^Z is handled not by trapping SIGTSTP, but by seeing
 *    that all pipe members are stopped. Try this in bash:
 *    while :; do :; done - ^Z does not background it
 *    (while :; do :; done) - ^Z backgrounds it
 * SIGINT (interactive): wait for last pipe, ignore the rest
 *    of the command line, show prompt. NB: ^C does not send SIGINT
 *    to interactive shell while shell is waiting for a pipe,
 *    since shell is bg'ed (is not in foreground process group).
 *    Example 1: this waits 5 sec, but does not execute ls:
 *    "echo $$; sleep 5; ls -l" + "kill -INT <pid>"
 *    Example 2: this does not wait and does not execute ls:
 *    "echo $$; sleep 5 & wait; ls -l" + "kill -INT <pid>"
 *    Example 3: this does not wait 5 sec, but executes ls:
 *    "sleep 5; ls -l" + press ^C
 *
 * (What happens to signals which are IGN on shell start?)
 * (What happens with signal mask on shell start?)
 *
 * Implementation in hush
 * ======================
 * We use in-kernel pending signal mask to determine which signals were sent.
 * We block all signals which we don't want to take action immediately,
 * i.e. we block all signals which need to have special handling as described
 * above, and all signals which have traps set.
 * After each pipe execution, we extract any pending signals via sigtimedwait()
 * and act on them.
 *
 * unsigned non_DFL_mask: a mask of such "special" signals
 * sigset_t blocked_set:  current blocked signal set
 *
 * "trap - SIGxxx":
 *    clear bit in blocked_set unless it is also in non_DFL_mask
 * "trap 'cmd' SIGxxx":
 *    set bit in blocked_set (even if 'cmd' is '')
 * after [v]fork, if we plan to be a shell:
 *    unblock signals with special interactive handling
 *    (child shell is not interactive),
 *    unset all traps except '' (note: regardless of child shell's type - {}, (), etc)
 * after [v]fork, if we plan to exec:
 *    POSIX says fork clears pending signal mask in child - no need to clear it.
 *    Restore blocked signal set to one inherited by shell just prior to exec.
 *
 * Note: as a result, we do not use signal handlers much. The only uses
 * are to count SIGCHLDs
 * and to restore tty pgrp on signal-induced exit.
 *
 * Note 2 (compat):
 * Standard says "When a subshell is entered, traps that are not being ignored
 * are set to the default actions". bash interprets it so that traps which
 * are set to '' (ignore) are NOT reset to defaults. We do the same.
 */
enum {
	SPECIAL_INTERACTIVE_SIGS = 0
		| (1 << SIGTERM)
		| (1 << SIGINT)
		| (1 << SIGHUP)
		,
	SPECIAL_JOB_SIGS = 0
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
		| (1 << SIGTTIN)
		| (1 << SIGTTOU)
		| (1 << SIGTSTP)
#endif
};

#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
static void SIGCHLD_handler(int sig UNUSED_PARAM)
{
	G.count_SIGCHLD++;
//bb_error_msg("[%d] SIGCHLD_handler: G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d", getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD);
}
#endif

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB

/* After [v]fork, in child: do not restore tty pgrp on xfunc death */
# define disable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit() (die_sleep = 0)
/* After [v]fork, in parent: restore tty pgrp on xfunc death */
# define enable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit()  (die_sleep = -1)

/* Restores tty foreground process group, and exits.
 * May be called as signal handler for fatal signal
 * (will resend signal to itself, producing correct exit state)
 * or called directly with -EXITCODE.
 * We also call it if xfunc is exiting. */
static void sigexit(int sig) NORETURN;
static void sigexit(int sig)
{
	/* Disable all signals: job control, SIGPIPE, etc. */
	sigprocmask_allsigs(SIG_BLOCK);

	/* Careful: we can end up here after [v]fork. Do not restore
	 * tty pgrp then, only top-level shell process does that */
	if (G_saved_tty_pgrp && getpid() == G.root_pid)
		tcsetpgrp(G_interactive_fd, G_saved_tty_pgrp);

	/* Not a signal, just exit */
	if (sig <= 0)
		_exit(- sig);

	kill_myself_with_sig(sig); /* does not return */
}
#else

# define disable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit() ((void)0)
# define enable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit()  ((void)0)

#endif

/* Restores tty foreground process group, and exits. */
static void hush_exit(int exitcode) NORETURN;
static void hush_exit(int exitcode)
{
	if (G.exiting <= 0 && G.traps && G.traps[0] && G.traps[0][0]) {
		/* Prevent recursion:
		 * trap "echo Hi; exit" EXIT; exit
		 */
		char *argv[] = { NULL, G.traps[0], NULL };
		G.traps[0] = NULL;
		G.exiting = 1;
		builtin_eval(argv);
		free(argv[1]);
	}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	fflush_all();
	sigexit(- (exitcode & 0xff));
#else
	exit(exitcode);
#endif
}

static int check_and_run_traps(int sig)
{
	static const struct timespec zero_timespec;
	smalluint save_rcode;
	int last_sig = 0;

	if (sig)
		goto jump_in;
	while (1) {
		sig = sigtimedwait(&G.blocked_set, NULL, &zero_timespec);
		if (sig <= 0)
			break;
 jump_in:
		last_sig = sig;
		if (G.traps && G.traps[sig]) {
			if (G.traps[sig][0]) {
				/* We have user-defined handler */
				char *argv[] = { NULL, xstrdup(G.traps[sig]), NULL };
				save_rcode = G.last_exitcode;
				builtin_eval(argv);
				free(argv[1]);
				G.last_exitcode = save_rcode;
			} /* else: "" trap, ignoring signal */
			continue;
		}
		/* not a trap: special action */
		switch (sig) {
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
		case SIGCHLD:
			G.count_SIGCHLD++;
//bb_error_msg("[%d] check_and_run_traps: G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d", getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD);
			break;
#endif
		case SIGINT:
			/* Builtin was ^C'ed, make it look prettier: */
			bb_putchar('\n');
			G.flag_SIGINT = 1;
			break;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
		case SIGHUP: {
			struct pipe *job;
			/* bash is observed to signal whole process groups,
			 * not individual processes */
			for (job = G.job_list; job; job = job->next) {
				if (job->pgrp <= 0)
					continue;
				debug_printf_exec("HUPing pgrp %d\n", job->pgrp);
				if (kill(- job->pgrp, SIGHUP) == 0)
					kill(- job->pgrp, SIGCONT);
			}
			sigexit(SIGHUP);
		}
#endif
		default: /* ignored: */
			/* SIGTERM, SIGQUIT, SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP */
			break;
		}
	}
	return last_sig;
}


static const char *get_cwd(int force)
{
	if (force || G.cwd == NULL) {
		/* xrealloc_getcwd_or_warn(arg) calls free(arg),
		 * we must not try to free(bb_msg_unknown) */
		if (G.cwd == bb_msg_unknown)
			G.cwd = NULL;
		G.cwd = xrealloc_getcwd_or_warn((char *)G.cwd);
		if (!G.cwd)
			G.cwd = bb_msg_unknown;
	}
	return G.cwd;
}


/*
 * Shell and environment variable support
 */
static struct variable **get_ptr_to_local_var(const char *name)
{
	struct variable **pp;
	struct variable *cur;
	int len;

	len = strlen(name);
	pp = &G.top_var;
	while ((cur = *pp) != NULL) {
		if (strncmp(cur->varstr, name, len) == 0 && cur->varstr[len] == '=')
			return pp;
		pp = &cur->next;
	}
	return NULL;
}

static struct variable *get_local_var(const char *name)
{
	struct variable **pp = get_ptr_to_local_var(name);
	if (pp)
		return *pp;
	return NULL;
}

static const char* FAST_FUNC get_local_var_value(const char *name)
{
	struct variable **vpp;

	if (G.expanded_assignments) {
		char **cpp = G.expanded_assignments;
		int len = strlen(name);
		while (*cpp) {
			char *cp = *cpp;
			if (strncmp(cp, name, len) == 0 && cp[len] == '=')
				return cp + len + 1;
			cpp++;
		}
	}

	vpp = get_ptr_to_local_var(name);
	if (vpp)
		return strchr((*vpp)->varstr, '=') + 1;

	if (strcmp(name, "PPID") == 0)
		return utoa(G.root_ppid);
	// bash compat: UID? EUID?
#if ENABLE_HUSH_RANDOM_SUPPORT
	if (strcmp(name, "RANDOM") == 0) {
		return utoa(next_random(&G.random_gen));
	}
#endif
	return NULL;
}

/* str holds "NAME=VAL" and is expected to be malloced.
 * We take ownership of it.
 * flg_export:
 *  0: do not change export flag
 *     (if creating new variable, flag will be 0)
 *  1: set export flag and putenv the variable
 * -1: clear export flag and unsetenv the variable
 * flg_read_only is set only when we handle -R var=val
 */
#if !BB_MMU && ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
/* all params are used */
#elif BB_MMU && ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
#define set_local_var(str, flg_export, local_lvl, flg_read_only) \
	set_local_var(str, flg_export, local_lvl)
#elif BB_MMU && !ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
#define set_local_var(str, flg_export, local_lvl, flg_read_only) \
	set_local_var(str, flg_export)
#elif !BB_MMU && !ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
#define set_local_var(str, flg_export, local_lvl, flg_read_only) \
	set_local_var(str, flg_export, flg_read_only)
#endif
static int set_local_var(char *str, int flg_export, int local_lvl, int flg_read_only)
{
	struct variable **var_pp;
	struct variable *cur;
	char *eq_sign;
	int name_len;

	eq_sign = strchr(str, '=');
	if (!eq_sign) { /* not expected to ever happen? */
		free(str);
		return -1;
	}

	name_len = eq_sign - str + 1; /* including '=' */
	var_pp = &G.top_var;
	while ((cur = *var_pp) != NULL) {
		if (strncmp(cur->varstr, str, name_len) != 0) {
			var_pp = &cur->next;
			continue;
		}
		/* We found an existing var with this name */
		if (cur->flg_read_only) {
#if !BB_MMU
			if (!flg_read_only)
#endif
				bb_error_msg("%s: readonly variable", str);
			free(str);
			return -1;
		}
		if (flg_export == -1) { // "&& cur->flg_export" ?
			debug_printf_env("%s: unsetenv '%s'\n", __func__, str);
			*eq_sign = '\0';
			unsetenv(str);
			*eq_sign = '=';
		}
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
		if (cur->func_nest_level < local_lvl) {
			/* New variable is declared as local,
			 * and existing one is global, or local
			 * from enclosing function.
			 * Remove and save old one: */
			*var_pp = cur->next;
			cur->next = *G.shadowed_vars_pp;
			*G.shadowed_vars_pp = cur;
			/* bash 3.2.33(1) and exported vars:
			 * # export z=z
			 * # f() { local z=a; env | grep ^z; }
			 * # f
			 * z=a
			 * # env | grep ^z
			 * z=z
			 */
			if (cur->flg_export)
				flg_export = 1;
			break;
		}
#endif
		if (strcmp(cur->varstr + name_len, eq_sign + 1) == 0) {
 free_and_exp:
			free(str);
			goto exp;
		}
		if (cur->max_len != 0) {
			if (cur->max_len >= strlen(str)) {
				/* This one is from startup env, reuse space */
				strcpy(cur->varstr, str);
				goto free_and_exp;
			}
		} else {
			/* max_len == 0 signifies "malloced" var, which we can
			 * (and has to) free */
			free(cur->varstr);
		}
		cur->max_len = 0;
		goto set_str_and_exp;
	}

	/* Not found - create new variable struct */
	cur = xzalloc(sizeof(*cur));
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
	cur->func_nest_level = local_lvl;
#endif
	cur->next = *var_pp;
	*var_pp = cur;

 set_str_and_exp:
	cur->varstr = str;
#if !BB_MMU
	cur->flg_read_only = flg_read_only;
#endif
 exp:
	if (flg_export == 1)
		cur->flg_export = 1;
	if (name_len == 4 && cur->varstr[0] == 'P' && cur->varstr[1] == 'S')
		cmdedit_update_prompt();
	if (cur->flg_export) {
		if (flg_export == -1) {
			cur->flg_export = 0;
			/* unsetenv was already done */
		} else {
			debug_printf_env("%s: putenv '%s'\n", __func__, cur->varstr);
			return putenv(cur->varstr);
		}
	}
	return 0;
}

/* Used at startup and after each cd */
static void set_pwd_var(int exp)
{
	set_local_var(xasprintf("PWD=%s", get_cwd(/*force:*/ 1)),
		/*exp:*/ exp, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
}

static int unset_local_var_len(const char *name, int name_len)
{
	struct variable *cur;
	struct variable **var_pp;

	if (!name)
		return EXIT_SUCCESS;
	var_pp = &G.top_var;
	while ((cur = *var_pp) != NULL) {
		if (strncmp(cur->varstr, name, name_len) == 0 && cur->varstr[name_len] == '=') {
			if (cur->flg_read_only) {
				bb_error_msg("%s: readonly variable", name);
				return EXIT_FAILURE;
			}
			*var_pp = cur->next;
			debug_printf_env("%s: unsetenv '%s'\n", __func__, cur->varstr);
			bb_unsetenv(cur->varstr);
			if (name_len == 3 && cur->varstr[0] == 'P' && cur->varstr[1] == 'S')
				cmdedit_update_prompt();
			if (!cur->max_len)
				free(cur->varstr);
			free(cur);
			return EXIT_SUCCESS;
		}
		var_pp = &cur->next;
	}
	return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

static int unset_local_var(const char *name)
{
	return unset_local_var_len(name, strlen(name));
}

static void unset_vars(char **strings)
{
	char **v;

	if (!strings)
		return;
	v = strings;
	while (*v) {
		const char *eq = strchrnul(*v, '=');
		unset_local_var_len(*v, (int)(eq - *v));
		v++;
	}
	free(strings);
}

#if ENABLE_SH_MATH_SUPPORT
# define is_name(c)      ((c) == '_' || isalpha((unsigned char)(c)))
# define is_in_name(c)   ((c) == '_' || isalnum((unsigned char)(c)))
static char* FAST_FUNC endofname(const char *name)
{
	char *p;

	p = (char *) name;
	if (!is_name(*p))
		return p;
	while (*++p) {
		if (!is_in_name(*p))
			break;
	}
	return p;
}
#endif

static void FAST_FUNC set_local_var_from_halves(const char *name, const char *val)
{
	char *var = xasprintf("%s=%s", name, val);
	set_local_var(var, /*flags:*/ 0, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
}


/*
 * Helpers for "var1=val1 var2=val2 cmd" feature
 */
static void add_vars(struct variable *var)
{
	struct variable *next;

	while (var) {
		next = var->next;
		var->next = G.top_var;
		G.top_var = var;
		if (var->flg_export) {
			debug_printf_env("%s: restoring exported '%s'\n", __func__, var->varstr);
			putenv(var->varstr);
		} else {
			debug_printf_env("%s: restoring variable '%s'\n", __func__, var->varstr);
		}
		var = next;
	}
}

static struct variable *set_vars_and_save_old(char **strings)
{
	char **s;
	struct variable *old = NULL;

	if (!strings)
		return old;
	s = strings;
	while (*s) {
		struct variable *var_p;
		struct variable **var_pp;
		char *eq;

		eq = strchr(*s, '=');
		if (eq) {
			*eq = '\0';
			var_pp = get_ptr_to_local_var(*s);
			*eq = '=';
			if (var_pp) {
				/* Remove variable from global linked list */
				var_p = *var_pp;
				debug_printf_env("%s: removing '%s'\n", __func__, var_p->varstr);
				*var_pp = var_p->next;
				/* Add it to returned list */
				var_p->next = old;
				old = var_p;
			}
			set_local_var(*s, /*exp:*/ 1, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
		}
		s++;
	}
	return old;
}


/*
 * in_str support
 */
static int FAST_FUNC static_get(struct in_str *i)
{
	int ch = *i->p;
	if (ch != '\0') {
		i->p++;
		return ch;
	}
	return EOF;
}

static int FAST_FUNC static_peek(struct in_str *i)
{
	return *i->p;
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE

static void cmdedit_update_prompt(void)
{
	if (ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING_FANCY_PROMPT) {
		G.PS1 = get_local_var_value("PS1");
		if (G.PS1 == NULL)
			G.PS1 = "\\w \\$ ";
		G.PS2 = get_local_var_value("PS2");
	} else {
		G.PS1 = NULL;
	}
	if (G.PS2 == NULL)
		G.PS2 = "> ";
}

static const char* setup_prompt_string(int promptmode)
{
	const char *prompt_str;
	debug_printf("setup_prompt_string %d ", promptmode);
	if (!ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING_FANCY_PROMPT) {
		/* Set up the prompt */
		if (promptmode == 0) { /* PS1 */
			free((char*)G.PS1);
			/* bash uses $PWD value, even if it is set by user.
			 * It uses current dir only if PWD is unset.
			 * We always use current dir. */
			G.PS1 = xasprintf("%s %c ", get_cwd(0), (geteuid() != 0) ? '$' : '#');
			prompt_str = G.PS1;
		} else
			prompt_str = G.PS2;
	} else
		prompt_str = (promptmode == 0) ? G.PS1 : G.PS2;
	debug_printf("result '%s'\n", prompt_str);
	return prompt_str;
}

static void get_user_input(struct in_str *i)
{
	int r;
	const char *prompt_str;

	prompt_str = setup_prompt_string(i->promptmode);
# if ENABLE_FEATURE_EDITING
	/* Enable command line editing only while a command line
	 * is actually being read */
	do {
		G.flag_SIGINT = 0;
		/* buglet: SIGINT will not make new prompt to appear _at once_,
		 * only after <Enter>. (^C will work) */
		r = read_line_input(prompt_str, G.user_input_buf, CONFIG_FEATURE_EDITING_MAX_LEN-1, G.line_input_state);
		/* catch *SIGINT* etc (^C is handled by read_line_input) */
		check_and_run_traps(0);
	} while (r == 0 || G.flag_SIGINT); /* repeat if ^C or SIGINT */
	i->eof_flag = (r < 0);
	if (i->eof_flag) { /* EOF/error detected */
		G.user_input_buf[0] = EOF; /* yes, it will be truncated, it's ok */
		G.user_input_buf[1] = '\0';
	}
# else
	do {
		G.flag_SIGINT = 0;
		fputs(prompt_str, stdout);
		fflush_all();
		G.user_input_buf[0] = r = fgetc(i->file);
		/*G.user_input_buf[1] = '\0'; - already is and never changed */
//do we need check_and_run_traps(0)? (maybe only if stdin)
	} while (G.flag_SIGINT);
	i->eof_flag = (r == EOF);
# endif
	i->p = G.user_input_buf;
}

#endif  /* INTERACTIVE */

/* This is the magic location that prints prompts
 * and gets data back from the user */
static int FAST_FUNC file_get(struct in_str *i)
{
	int ch;

	/* If there is data waiting, eat it up */
	if (i->p && *i->p) {
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
 take_cached:
#endif
		ch = *i->p++;
		if (i->eof_flag && !*i->p)
			ch = EOF;
		/* note: ch is never NUL */
	} else {
		/* need to double check i->file because we might be doing something
		 * more complicated by now, like sourcing or substituting. */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
		if (G_interactive_fd && i->promptme && i->file == stdin) {
			do {
				get_user_input(i);
			} while (!*i->p); /* need non-empty line */
			i->promptmode = 1; /* PS2 */
			i->promptme = 0;
			goto take_cached;
		}
#endif
		do ch = fgetc(i->file); while (ch == '\0');
	}
	debug_printf("file_get: got '%c' %d\n", ch, ch);
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
	if (ch == '\n')
		i->promptme = 1;
#endif
	return ch;
}

/* All callers guarantee this routine will never
 * be used right after a newline, so prompting is not needed.
 */
static int FAST_FUNC file_peek(struct in_str *i)
{
	int ch;
	if (i->p && *i->p) {
		if (i->eof_flag && !i->p[1])
			return EOF;
		return *i->p;
		/* note: ch is never NUL */
	}
	do ch = fgetc(i->file); while (ch == '\0');
	i->eof_flag = (ch == EOF);
	i->peek_buf[0] = ch;
	i->peek_buf[1] = '\0';
	i->p = i->peek_buf;
	debug_printf("file_peek: got '%c' %d\n", ch, ch);
	return ch;
}

static void setup_file_in_str(struct in_str *i, FILE *f)
{
	i->peek = file_peek;
	i->get = file_get;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
	i->promptme = 1;
	i->promptmode = 0; /* PS1 */
#endif
	i->file = f;
	i->p = NULL;
}

static void setup_string_in_str(struct in_str *i, const char *s)
{
	i->peek = static_peek;
	i->get = static_get;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_INTERACTIVE
	i->promptme = 1;
	i->promptmode = 0; /* PS1 */
#endif
	i->p = s;
	i->eof_flag = 0;
}


/*
 * o_string support
 */
#define B_CHUNK  (32 * sizeof(char*))

static void o_reset_to_empty_unquoted(o_string *o)
{
	o->length = 0;
	o->o_quoted = 0;
	if (o->data)
		o->data[0] = '\0';
}

static void o_free(o_string *o)
{
	free(o->data);
	memset(o, 0, sizeof(*o));
}

static ALWAYS_INLINE void o_free_unsafe(o_string *o)
{
	free(o->data);
}

static void o_grow_by(o_string *o, int len)
{
	if (o->length + len > o->maxlen) {
		o->maxlen += (2*len > B_CHUNK ? 2*len : B_CHUNK);
		o->data = xrealloc(o->data, 1 + o->maxlen);
	}
}

static void o_addchr(o_string *o, int ch)
{
	debug_printf("o_addchr: '%c' o->length=%d o=%p\n", ch, o->length, o);
	o_grow_by(o, 1);
	o->data[o->length] = ch;
	o->length++;
	o->data[o->length] = '\0';
}

static void o_addblock(o_string *o, const char *str, int len)
{
	o_grow_by(o, len);
	memcpy(&o->data[o->length], str, len);
	o->length += len;
	o->data[o->length] = '\0';
}

static void o_addstr(o_string *o, const char *str)
{
	o_addblock(o, str, strlen(str));
}

#if !BB_MMU
static void nommu_addchr(o_string *o, int ch)
{
	if (o)
		o_addchr(o, ch);
}
#else
# define nommu_addchr(o, str) ((void)0)
#endif

static void o_addstr_with_NUL(o_string *o, const char *str)
{
	o_addblock(o, str, strlen(str) + 1);
}

static void o_addblock_duplicate_backslash(o_string *o, const char *str, int len)
{
	while (len) {
		o_addchr(o, *str);
		if (*str++ == '\\'
		 && (*str != '*' && *str != '?' && *str != '[')
		) {
			o_addchr(o, '\\');
		}
		len--;
	}
}

#undef HUSH_BRACE_EXP
/*
 * HUSH_BRACE_EXP code needs corresponding quoting on variable expansion side.
 * Currently, "v='{q,w}'; echo $v" erroneously expands braces in $v.
 * Apparently, on unquoted $v bash still does globbing
 * ("v='*.txt'; echo $v" prints all .txt files),
 * but NOT brace expansion! Thus, there should be TWO independent
 * quoting mechanisms on $v expansion side: one protects
 * $v from brace expansion, and other additionally protects "$v" against globbing.
 * We have only second one.
 */

#ifdef HUSH_BRACE_EXP
# define MAYBE_BRACES "{}"
#else
# define MAYBE_BRACES ""
#endif

/* My analysis of quoting semantics tells me that state information
 * is associated with a destination, not a source.
 */
static void o_addqchr(o_string *o, int ch)
{
	int sz = 1;
	char *found = strchr("*?[\\" MAYBE_BRACES, ch);
	if (found)
		sz++;
	o_grow_by(o, sz);
	if (found) {
		o->data[o->length] = '\\';
		o->length++;
	}
	o->data[o->length] = ch;
	o->length++;
	o->data[o->length] = '\0';
}

static void o_addQchr(o_string *o, int ch)
{
	int sz = 1;
	if (o->o_escape && strchr("*?[\\" MAYBE_BRACES, ch)) {
		sz++;
		o->data[o->length] = '\\';
		o->length++;
	}
	o_grow_by(o, sz);
	o->data[o->length] = ch;
	o->length++;
	o->data[o->length] = '\0';
}

static void o_addQstr(o_string *o, const char *str, int len)
{
	if (!o->o_escape) {
		o_addblock(o, str, len);
		return;
	}
	while (len) {
		char ch;
		int sz;
		int ordinary_cnt = strcspn(str, "*?[\\" MAYBE_BRACES);
		if (ordinary_cnt > len) /* paranoia */
			ordinary_cnt = len;
		o_addblock(o, str, ordinary_cnt);
		if (ordinary_cnt == len)
			return;
		str += ordinary_cnt;
		len -= ordinary_cnt + 1; /* we are processing + 1 char below */

		ch = *str++;
		sz = 1;
		if (ch) { /* it is necessarily one of "*?[\\" MAYBE_BRACES */
			sz++;
			o->data[o->length] = '\\';
			o->length++;
		}
		o_grow_by(o, sz);
		o->data[o->length] = ch;
		o->length++;
		o->data[o->length] = '\0';
	}
}

/* A special kind of o_string for $VAR and `cmd` expansion.
 * It contains char* list[] at the beginning, which is grown in 16 element
 * increments. Actual string data starts at the next multiple of 16 * (char*).
 * list[i] contains an INDEX (int!) into this string data.
 * It means that if list[] needs to grow, data needs to be moved higher up
 * but list[i]'s need not be modified.
 * NB: remembering how many list[i]'s you have there is crucial.
 * o_finalize_list() operation post-processes this structure - calculates
 * and stores actual char* ptrs in list[]. Oh, it NULL terminates it as well.
 */
#if DEBUG_EXPAND || DEBUG_GLOB
static void debug_print_list(const char *prefix, o_string *o, int n)
{
	char **list = (char**)o->data;
	int string_start = ((n + 0xf) & ~0xf) * sizeof(list[0]);
	int i = 0;

	indent();
	fprintf(stderr, "%s: list:%p n:%d string_start:%d length:%d maxlen:%d\n",
			prefix, list, n, string_start, o->length, o->maxlen);
	while (i < n) {
		indent();
		fprintf(stderr, " list[%d]=%d '%s' %p\n", i, (int)list[i],
				o->data + (int)list[i] + string_start,
				o->data + (int)list[i] + string_start);
		i++;
	}
	if (n) {
		const char *p = o->data + (int)list[n - 1] + string_start;
		indent();
		fprintf(stderr, " total_sz:%ld\n", (long)((p + strlen(p) + 1) - o->data));
	}
}
#else
# define debug_print_list(prefix, o, n) ((void)0)
#endif

/* n = o_save_ptr_helper(str, n) "starts new string" by storing an index value
 * in list[n] so that it points past last stored byte so far.
 * It returns n+1. */
static int o_save_ptr_helper(o_string *o, int n)
{
	char **list = (char**)o->data;
	int string_start;
	int string_len;

	if (!o->has_empty_slot) {
		string_start = ((n + 0xf) & ~0xf) * sizeof(list[0]);
		string_len = o->length - string_start;
		if (!(n & 0xf)) { /* 0, 0x10, 0x20...? */
			debug_printf_list("list[%d]=%d string_start=%d (growing)\n", n, string_len, string_start);
			/* list[n] points to string_start, make space for 16 more pointers */
			o->maxlen += 0x10 * sizeof(list[0]);
			o->data = xrealloc(o->data, o->maxlen + 1);
			list = (char**)o->data;
			memmove(list + n + 0x10, list + n, string_len);
			o->length += 0x10 * sizeof(list[0]);
		} else {
			debug_printf_list("list[%d]=%d string_start=%d\n",
					n, string_len, string_start);
		}
	} else {
		/* We have empty slot at list[n], reuse without growth */
		string_start = ((n+1 + 0xf) & ~0xf) * sizeof(list[0]); /* NB: n+1! */
		string_len = o->length - string_start;
		debug_printf_list("list[%d]=%d string_start=%d (empty slot)\n",
				n, string_len, string_start);
		o->has_empty_slot = 0;
	}
	list[n] = (char*)(ptrdiff_t)string_len;
	return n + 1;
}

/* "What was our last o_save_ptr'ed position (byte offset relative o->data)?" */
static int o_get_last_ptr(o_string *o, int n)
{
	char **list = (char**)o->data;
	int string_start = ((n + 0xf) & ~0xf) * sizeof(list[0]);

	return ((int)(ptrdiff_t)list[n-1]) + string_start;
}

#ifdef HUSH_BRACE_EXP
/* There in a GNU extension, GLOB_BRACE, but it is not usable:
 * first, it processes even {a} (no commas), second,
 * I didn't manage to make it return strings when they don't match
 * existing files. Need to re-implement it.
 */

/* Helper */
static int glob_needed(const char *s)
{
	while (*s) {
		if (*s == '\\') {
			if (!s[1])
				return 0;
			s += 2;
			continue;
		}
		if (*s == '*' || *s == '[' || *s == '?' || *s == '{')
			return 1;
		s++;
	}
	return 0;
}
/* Return pointer to next closing brace or to comma */
static const char *next_brace_sub(const char *cp)
{
	unsigned depth = 0;
	cp++;
	while (*cp != '\0') {
		if (*cp == '\\') {
			if (*++cp == '\0')
				break;
			cp++;
			continue;
		}
		 /*{*/ if ((*cp == '}' && depth-- == 0) || (*cp == ',' && depth == 0))
			break;
		if (*cp++ == '{') /*}*/
			depth++;
	}

	return *cp != '\0' ? cp : NULL;
}
/* Recursive brace globber. Note: may garble pattern[]. */
static int glob_brace(char *pattern, o_string *o, int n)
{
	char *new_pattern_buf;
	const char *begin;
	const char *next;
	const char *rest;
	const char *p;
	size_t rest_len;

	debug_printf_glob("glob_brace('%s')\n", pattern);

	begin = pattern;
	while (1) {
		if (*begin == '\0')
			goto simple_glob;
		if (*begin == '{') /*}*/ {
			/* Find the first sub-pattern and at the same time
			 * find the rest after the closing brace */
			next = next_brace_sub(begin);
			if (next == NULL) {
				/* An illegal expression */
				goto simple_glob;
			}
			/*{*/ if (*next == '}') {
				/* "{abc}" with no commas - illegal
				 * brace expr, disregard and skip it */
				begin = next + 1;
				continue;
			}
			break;
		}
		if (*begin == '\\' && begin[1] != '\0')
			begin++;
		begin++;
	}
	debug_printf_glob("begin:%s\n", begin);
	debug_printf_glob("next:%s\n", next);

	/* Now find the end of the whole brace expression */
	rest = next;
	/*{*/ while (*rest != '}') {
		rest = next_brace_sub(rest);
		if (rest == NULL) {
			/* An illegal expression */
			goto simple_glob;
		}
		debug_printf_glob("rest:%s\n", rest);
	}
	rest_len = strlen(++rest) + 1;

	/* We are sure the brace expression is well-formed */

	/* Allocate working buffer large enough for our work */
	new_pattern_buf = xmalloc(strlen(pattern));

	/* We have a brace expression.  BEGIN points to the opening {,
	 * NEXT points past the terminator of the first element, and REST
	 * points past the final }.  We will accumulate result names from
	 * recursive runs for each brace alternative in the buffer using
	 * GLOB_APPEND.  */

	p = begin + 1;
	while (1) {
		/* Construct the new glob expression */
		memcpy(
			mempcpy(
				mempcpy(new_pattern_buf,
					/* We know the prefix for all sub-patterns */
					pattern, begin - pattern),
				p, next - p),
			rest, rest_len);

		/* Note: glob_brace() may garble new_pattern_buf[].
		 * That's why we re-copy prefix every time (1st memcpy above).
		 */
		n = glob_brace(new_pattern_buf, o, n);
		/*{*/ if (*next == '}') {
			/* We saw the last entry */
			break;
		}
		p = next + 1;
		next = next_brace_sub(next);
	}
	free(new_pattern_buf);
	return n;

 simple_glob:
	{
		int gr;
		glob_t globdata;

		memset(&globdata, 0, sizeof(globdata));
		gr = glob(pattern, 0, NULL, &globdata);
		debug_printf_glob("glob('%s'):%d\n", pattern, gr);
		if (gr != 0) {
			if (gr == GLOB_NOMATCH) {
				globfree(&globdata);
				/* NB: garbles parameter */
				unbackslash(pattern);
				o_addstr_with_NUL(o, pattern);
				debug_printf_glob("glob pattern '%s' is literal\n", pattern);
				return o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
			}
			if (gr == GLOB_NOSPACE)
				bb_error_msg_and_die(bb_msg_memory_exhausted);
			/* GLOB_ABORTED? Only happens with GLOB_ERR flag,
			 * but we didn't specify it. Paranoia again. */
			bb_error_msg_and_die("glob error %d on '%s'", gr, pattern);
		}
		if (globdata.gl_pathv && globdata.gl_pathv[0]) {
			char **argv = globdata.gl_pathv;
			while (1) {
				o_addstr_with_NUL(o, *argv);
				n = o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
				argv++;
				if (!*argv)
					break;
			}
		}
		globfree(&globdata);
	}
	return n;
}
/* Performs globbing on last list[],
 * saving each result as a new list[].
 */
static int o_glob(o_string *o, int n)
{
	char *pattern, *copy;

	debug_printf_glob("start o_glob: n:%d o->data:%p\n", n, o->data);
	if (!o->data)
		return o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
	pattern = o->data + o_get_last_ptr(o, n);
	debug_printf_glob("glob pattern '%s'\n", pattern);
	if (!glob_needed(pattern)) {
		/* unbackslash last string in o in place, fix length */
		o->length = unbackslash(pattern) - o->data;
		debug_printf_glob("glob pattern '%s' is literal\n", pattern);
		return o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
	}

	copy = xstrdup(pattern);
	/* "forget" pattern in o */
	o->length = pattern - o->data;
	n = glob_brace(copy, o, n);
	free(copy);
	if (DEBUG_GLOB)
		debug_print_list("o_glob returning", o, n);
	return n;
}

#else /* !HUSH_BRACE_EXP */

/* Helper */
static int glob_needed(const char *s)
{
	while (*s) {
		if (*s == '\\') {
			if (!s[1])
				return 0;
			s += 2;
			continue;
		}
		if (*s == '*' || *s == '[' || *s == '?')
			return 1;
		s++;
	}
	return 0;
}
/* Performs globbing on last list[],
 * saving each result as a new list[].
 */
static int o_glob(o_string *o, int n)
{
	glob_t globdata;
	int gr;
	char *pattern;

	debug_printf_glob("start o_glob: n:%d o->data:%p\n", n, o->data);
	if (!o->data)
		return o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
	pattern = o->data + o_get_last_ptr(o, n);
	debug_printf_glob("glob pattern '%s'\n", pattern);
	if (!glob_needed(pattern)) {
 literal:
		/* unbackslash last string in o in place, fix length */
		o->length = unbackslash(pattern) - o->data;
		debug_printf_glob("glob pattern '%s' is literal\n", pattern);
		return o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
	}

	memset(&globdata, 0, sizeof(globdata));
	/* Can't use GLOB_NOCHECK: it does not unescape the string.
	 * If we glob "*.\*" and don't find anything, we need
	 * to fall back to using literal "*.*", but GLOB_NOCHECK
	 * will return "*.\*"!
	 */
	gr = glob(pattern, 0, NULL, &globdata);
	debug_printf_glob("glob('%s'):%d\n", pattern, gr);
	if (gr != 0) {
		if (gr == GLOB_NOMATCH) {
			globfree(&globdata);
			goto literal;
		}
		if (gr == GLOB_NOSPACE)
			bb_error_msg_and_die(bb_msg_memory_exhausted);
		/* GLOB_ABORTED? Only happens with GLOB_ERR flag,
		 * but we didn't specify it. Paranoia again. */
		bb_error_msg_and_die("glob error %d on '%s'", gr, pattern);
	}
	if (globdata.gl_pathv && globdata.gl_pathv[0]) {
		char **argv = globdata.gl_pathv;
		/* "forget" pattern in o */
		o->length = pattern - o->data;
		while (1) {
			o_addstr_with_NUL(o, *argv);
			n = o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
			argv++;
			if (!*argv)
				break;
		}
	}
	globfree(&globdata);
	if (DEBUG_GLOB)
		debug_print_list("o_glob returning", o, n);
	return n;
}

#endif /* !HUSH_BRACE_EXP */

/* If o->o_glob == 1, glob the string so far remembered.
 * Otherwise, just finish current list[] and start new */
static int o_save_ptr(o_string *o, int n)
{
	if (o->o_glob) { /* if globbing is requested */
		/* If o->has_empty_slot, list[n] was already globbed
		 * (if it was requested back then when it was filled)
		 * so don't do that again! */
		if (!o->has_empty_slot)
			return o_glob(o, n); /* o_save_ptr_helper is inside */
	}
	return o_save_ptr_helper(o, n);
}

/* "Please convert list[n] to real char* ptrs, and NULL terminate it." */
static char **o_finalize_list(o_string *o, int n)
{
	char **list;
	int string_start;

	n = o_save_ptr(o, n); /* force growth for list[n] if necessary */
	if (DEBUG_EXPAND)
		debug_print_list("finalized", o, n);
	debug_printf_expand("finalized n:%d\n", n);
	list = (char**)o->data;
	string_start = ((n + 0xf) & ~0xf) * sizeof(list[0]);
	list[--n] = NULL;
	while (n) {
		n--;
		list[n] = o->data + (int)(ptrdiff_t)list[n] + string_start;
	}
	return list;
}


/* Expansion can recurse */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
static int process_command_subs(o_string *dest, const char *s);
#endif
static char *expand_string_to_string(const char *str);
#if BB_MMU
#define parse_stream_dquoted(as_string, dest, input, dquote_end) \
	parse_stream_dquoted(dest, input, dquote_end)
#endif
static int parse_stream_dquoted(o_string *as_string,
		o_string *dest,
		struct in_str *input,
		int dquote_end);

/* expand_strvec_to_strvec() takes a list of strings, expands
 * all variable references within and returns a pointer to
 * a list of expanded strings, possibly with larger number
 * of strings. (Think VAR="a b"; echo $VAR).
 * This new list is allocated as a single malloc block.
 * NULL-terminated list of char* pointers is at the beginning of it,
 * followed by strings themself.
 * Caller can deallocate entire list by single free(list). */

/* Store given string, finalizing the word and starting new one whenever
 * we encounter IFS char(s). This is used for expanding variable values.
 * End-of-string does NOT finalize word: think about 'echo -$VAR-' */
static int expand_on_ifs(o_string *output, int n, const char *str)
{
	while (1) {
		int word_len = strcspn(str, G.ifs);
		if (word_len) {
			if (output->o_escape || !output->o_glob)
				o_addQstr(output, str, word_len);
			else /* protect backslashes against globbing up :) */
				o_addblock_duplicate_backslash(output, str, word_len);
			str += word_len;
		}
		if (!*str)  /* EOL - do not finalize word */
			break;
		o_addchr(output, '\0');
		debug_print_list("expand_on_ifs", output, n);
		n = o_save_ptr(output, n);
		str += strspn(str, G.ifs); /* skip ifs chars */
	}
	debug_print_list("expand_on_ifs[1]", output, n);
	return n;
}

/* Helper to expand $((...)) and heredoc body. These act as if
 * they are in double quotes, with the exception that they are not :).
 * Just the rules are similar: "expand only $var and `cmd`"
 *
 * Returns malloced string.
 * As an optimization, we return NULL if expansion is not needed.
 */
static char *expand_pseudo_dquoted(const char *str)
{
	char *exp_str;
	struct in_str input;
	o_string dest = NULL_O_STRING;

	if (strchr(str, '$') == NULL
#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
	 && strchr(str, '`') == NULL
#endif
	) {
		return NULL;
	}

	/* We need to expand. Example:
	 * echo $(($a + `echo 1`)) $((1 + $((2)) ))
	 */
	setup_string_in_str(&input, str);
	parse_stream_dquoted(NULL, &dest, &input, EOF);
	//bb_error_msg("'%s' -> '%s'", str, dest.data);
	exp_str = expand_string_to_string(dest.data);
	//bb_error_msg("'%s' -> '%s'", dest.data, exp_str);
	o_free_unsafe(&dest);
	return exp_str;
}

#if ENABLE_SH_MATH_SUPPORT
static arith_t expand_and_evaluate_arith(const char *arg, int *errcode_p)
{
	arith_eval_hooks_t hooks;
	arith_t res;
	char *exp_str;

	hooks.lookupvar = get_local_var_value;
	hooks.setvar = set_local_var_from_halves;
	hooks.endofname = endofname;
	exp_str = expand_pseudo_dquoted(arg);
	res = arith(exp_str ? exp_str : arg, errcode_p, &hooks);
	free(exp_str);
	return res;
}
#endif

/* Expand all variable references in given string, adding words to list[]
 * at n, n+1,... positions. Return updated n (so that list[n] is next one
 * to be filled). This routine is extremely tricky: has to deal with
 * variables/parameters with whitespace, $* and $@, and constructs like
 * 'echo -$*-'. If you play here, you must run testsuite afterwards! */
static NOINLINE int expand_vars_to_list(o_string *output, int n, char *arg, char or_mask)
{
	/* or_mask is either 0 (normal case) or 0x80 -
	 * expansion of right-hand side of assignment == 1-element expand.
	 * It will also do no globbing, and thus we must not backslash-quote!
	 */
	char ored_ch;
	char *p;

	ored_ch = 0;

	debug_printf_expand("expand_vars_to_list: arg:'%s' or_mask:%x\n", arg, or_mask);
	debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list", output, n);
	n = o_save_ptr(output, n);
	debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[0]", output, n);

	while ((p = strchr(arg, SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL)) != NULL) {
		char first_ch;
		int i;
		char *to_be_freed = NULL;
		const char *val = NULL;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
		o_string subst_result = NULL_O_STRING;
#endif
#if ENABLE_SH_MATH_SUPPORT
		char arith_buf[sizeof(arith_t)*3 + 2];
#endif
		o_addblock(output, arg, p - arg);
		debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[1]", output, n);
		arg = ++p;
		p = strchr(p, SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL);

		first_ch = arg[0] | or_mask; /* forced to "quoted" if or_mask = 0x80 */
		/* "$@" is special. Even if quoted, it can still
		 * expand to nothing (not even an empty string) */
		if ((first_ch & 0x7f) != '@')
			ored_ch |= first_ch;

		switch (first_ch & 0x7f) {
		/* Highest bit in first_ch indicates that var is double-quoted */
		case '*':
		case '@':
			i = 1;
			if (!G.global_argv[i])
				break;
			ored_ch |= first_ch; /* do it for "$@" _now_, when we know it's not empty */
			if (!(first_ch & 0x80)) { /* unquoted $* or $@ */
				smallint sv = output->o_escape;
				/* unquoted var's contents should be globbed, so don't escape */
				output->o_escape = 0;
				while (G.global_argv[i]) {
					n = expand_on_ifs(output, n, G.global_argv[i]);
					debug_printf_expand("expand_vars_to_list: argv %d (last %d)\n", i, G.global_argc - 1);
					if (G.global_argv[i++][0] && G.global_argv[i]) {
						/* this argv[] is not empty and not last:
						 * put terminating NUL, start new word */
						o_addchr(output, '\0');
						debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[2]", output, n);
						n = o_save_ptr(output, n);
						debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[3]", output, n);
					}
				}
				output->o_escape = sv;
			} else
			/* If or_mask is nonzero, we handle assignment 'a=....$@.....'
			 * and in this case should treat it like '$*' - see 'else...' below */
			if (first_ch == ('@'|0x80) && !or_mask) { /* quoted $@ */
				while (1) {
					o_addQstr(output, G.global_argv[i], strlen(G.global_argv[i]));
					if (++i >= G.global_argc)
						break;
					o_addchr(output, '\0');
					debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[4]", output, n);
					n = o_save_ptr(output, n);
				}
			} else { /* quoted $*: add as one word */
				while (1) {
					o_addQstr(output, G.global_argv[i], strlen(G.global_argv[i]));
					if (!G.global_argv[++i])
						break;
					if (G.ifs[0])
						o_addchr(output, G.ifs[0]);
				}
			}
			break;
		case SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL: /* <SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL><SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL> */
			/* "Empty variable", used to make "" etc to not disappear */
			arg++;
			ored_ch = 0x80;
			break;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
		case '`': /* <SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL>`cmd<SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL> */
			*p = '\0';
			arg++;
			/* Can't just stuff it into output o_string,
			 * expanded result may need to be globbed
			 * and $IFS-splitted */
			debug_printf_subst("SUBST '%s' first_ch %x\n", arg, first_ch);
			G.last_exitcode = process_command_subs(&subst_result, arg);
			debug_printf_subst("SUBST RES:%d '%s'\n", G.last_exitcode, subst_result.data);
			val = subst_result.data;
			goto store_val;
#endif
#if ENABLE_SH_MATH_SUPPORT
		case '+': { /* <SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL>+cmd<SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL> */
			arith_t res;
			int errcode;

			arg++; /* skip '+' */
			*p = '\0'; /* replace trailing <SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL> */
			debug_printf_subst("ARITH '%s' first_ch %x\n", arg, first_ch);
			res = expand_and_evaluate_arith(arg, &errcode);

			if (errcode < 0) {
				const char *msg = "error in arithmetic";
				switch (errcode) {
				case -3:
					msg = "exponent less than 0";
					break;
				case -2:
					msg = "divide by 0";
					break;
				case -5:
					msg = "expression recursion loop detected";
					break;
				}
				die_if_script(msg);
			}
			debug_printf_subst("ARITH RES '"arith_t_fmt"'\n", res);
			sprintf(arith_buf, arith_t_fmt, res);
			val = arith_buf;
			break;
		}
#endif
		default: { /* <SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL>varname<SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL> */
			char *var;
			char first_char;
			char exp_op;
			char exp_save = exp_save; /* for compiler */
			char *exp_saveptr; /* points to expansion operator */
			char *exp_word = exp_word; /* for compiler */

			var = arg;
			*p = '\0';
			exp_saveptr = arg[1] ? strchr("%#:-=+?", arg[1]) : NULL;
			first_char = arg[0] = first_ch & 0x7f;
			exp_op = 0;

			if (first_char == '#' && arg[1] && !exp_saveptr) {
				/* handle length expansion ${#var} */
				var++;
				exp_op = 'L';
			} else {
				/* maybe handle parameter expansion */
				if (exp_saveptr /* if 2nd char is one of expansion operators */
				 && strchr(NUMERIC_SPECVARS_STR, first_char) /* 1st char is special variable */
				) {
					/* ${?:0}, ${#[:]%0} etc */
					exp_saveptr = var + 1;
				} else {
					/* ${?}, ${var}, ${var:0}, ${var[:]%0} etc */
					exp_saveptr = var+1 + strcspn(var+1, "%#:-=+?");
				}
				exp_op = exp_save = *exp_saveptr;
				if (exp_op) {
					exp_word = exp_saveptr + 1;
					if (exp_op == ':') {
						exp_op = *exp_word++;
						if (ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
						 && (exp_op == '\0' || !strchr("%#:-=+?"+3, exp_op))
						) {
							/* oops... it's ${var:N[:M]}, not ${var:?xxx} or some such */
							exp_op = ':';
							exp_word--;
						}
					}
					*exp_saveptr = '\0';
				} /* else: it's not an expansion op, but bare ${var} */
			}

			/* lookup the variable in question */
			if (isdigit(var[0])) {
				/* parse_dollar() should have vetted var for us */
				i = xatoi_u(var);
				if (i < G.global_argc)
					val = G.global_argv[i];
				/* else val remains NULL: $N with too big N */
			} else {
				switch (var[0]) {
				case '$': /* pid */
					val = utoa(G.root_pid);
					break;
				case '!': /* bg pid */
					val = G.last_bg_pid ? utoa(G.last_bg_pid) : (char*)"";
					break;
				case '?': /* exitcode */
					val = utoa(G.last_exitcode);
					break;
				case '#': /* argc */
					val = utoa(G.global_argc ? G.global_argc-1 : 0);
					break;
				default:
					val = get_local_var_value(var);
				}
			}

			/* handle any expansions */
			if (exp_op == 'L') {
				debug_printf_expand("expand: length(%s)=", val);
				val = utoa(val ? strlen(val) : 0);
				debug_printf_expand("%s\n", val);
			} else if (exp_op) {
				if (exp_op == '%' || exp_op == '#') {
	/* Standard-mandated substring removal ops:
	 * ${parameter%word} - remove smallest suffix pattern
	 * ${parameter%%word} - remove largest suffix pattern
	 * ${parameter#word} - remove smallest prefix pattern
	 * ${parameter##word} - remove largest prefix pattern
	 *
	 * Word is expanded to produce a glob pattern.
	 * Then var's value is matched to it and matching part removed.
	 */
					if (val) {
						bool match_at_left;
						char *loc;
						scan_t scan = pick_scan(exp_op, *exp_word, &match_at_left);
						if (exp_op == *exp_word)	/* ## or %% */
							exp_word++;
						val = to_be_freed = xstrdup(val);
						{
							char *exp_exp_word = expand_pseudo_dquoted(exp_word);
							if (exp_exp_word)
								exp_word = exp_exp_word;
							loc = scan(to_be_freed, exp_word, match_at_left);
							//bb_error_msg("op:%c str:'%s' pat:'%s' res:'%s'",
							//		exp_op, to_be_freed, exp_word, loc);
							free(exp_exp_word);
						}
						if (loc) { /* match was found */
							if (match_at_left) /* # or ## */
								val = loc;
							else /* % or %% */
								*loc = '\0';
						}
					}
				} else if (exp_op == ':') {
#if ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT && ENABLE_SH_MATH_SUPPORT
	/* It's ${var:N[:M]} bashism.
	 * Note that in encoded form it has TWO parts:
	 * var:N<SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL>M<SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL>
	 */
					arith_t beg, len;
					int errcode = 0;

					beg = expand_and_evaluate_arith(exp_word, &errcode);
					debug_printf_varexp("beg:'%s'=%lld\n", exp_word, (long long)beg);
					*p++ = SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL;
					exp_word = p;
					p = strchr(p, SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL);
					*p = '\0';
					len = expand_and_evaluate_arith(exp_word, &errcode);
					debug_printf_varexp("len:'%s'=%lld\n", exp_word, (long long)len);

					if (errcode >= 0 && len >= 0) { /* bash compat: len < 0 is illegal */
						if (beg < 0) /* bash compat */
							beg = 0;
						debug_printf_varexp("from val:'%s'\n", val);
						if (len == 0 || !val || beg >= strlen(val))
							val = "";
						else {
							/* Paranoia. What if user entered 9999999999999
							 * which fits in arith_t but not int? */
							if (len >= INT_MAX)
								len = INT_MAX;
							val = to_be_freed = xstrndup(val + beg, len);
						}
						debug_printf_varexp("val:'%s'\n", val);
					} else
#endif
					{
						die_if_script("malformed ${%s:...}", var);
						val = "";
					}
				} else { /* one of "-=+?" */
	/* Standard-mandated substitution ops:
	 * ${var?word} - indicate error if unset
	 *      If var is unset, word (or a message indicating it is unset
	 *      if word is null) is written to standard error
	 *      and the shell exits with a non-zero exit status.
	 *      Otherwise, the value of var is substituted.
	 * ${var-word} - use default value
	 *      If var is unset, word is substituted.
	 * ${var=word} - assign and use default value
	 *      If var is unset, word is assigned to var.
	 *      In all cases, final value of var is substituted.
	 * ${var+word} - use alternative value
	 *      If var is unset, null is substituted.
	 *      Otherwise, word is substituted.
	 *
	 * Word is subjected to tilde expansion, parameter expansion,
	 * command substitution, and arithmetic expansion.
	 * If word is not needed, it is not expanded.
	 *
	 * Colon forms (${var:-word}, ${var:=word} etc) do the same,
	 * but also treat null var as if it is unset.
	 */
					int use_word = (!val || ((exp_save == ':') && !val[0]));
					if (exp_op == '+')
						use_word = !use_word;
					debug_printf_expand("expand: op:%c (null:%s) test:%i\n", exp_op,
						(exp_save == ':') ? "true" : "false", use_word);
					if (use_word) {
						to_be_freed = expand_pseudo_dquoted(exp_word);
						if (to_be_freed)
							exp_word = to_be_freed;
						if (exp_op == '?') {
							/* mimic bash message */
							die_if_script("%s: %s",
								var,
								exp_word[0] ? exp_word : "parameter null or not set"
							);
//TODO: how interactive bash aborts expansion mid-command?
						} else {
							val = exp_word;
						}

						if (exp_op == '=') {
							/* ${var=[word]} or ${var:=[word]} */
							if (isdigit(var[0]) || var[0] == '#') {
								/* mimic bash message */
								die_if_script("$%s: cannot assign in this way", var);
								val = NULL;
							} else {
								char *new_var = xasprintf("%s=%s", var, val);
								set_local_var(new_var, /*exp:*/ 0, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
							}
						}
					}
				} /* one of "-=+?" */

				*exp_saveptr = exp_save;
			} /* if (exp_op) */

			arg[0] = first_ch;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
 store_val:
#endif
			if (!(first_ch & 0x80)) { /* unquoted $VAR */
				debug_printf_expand("unquoted '%s', output->o_escape:%d\n", val, output->o_escape);
				if (val) {
					/* unquoted var's contents should be globbed, so don't escape */
					smallint sv = output->o_escape;
					output->o_escape = 0;
					n = expand_on_ifs(output, n, val);
					val = NULL;
					output->o_escape = sv;
				}
			} else { /* quoted $VAR, val will be appended below */
				debug_printf_expand("quoted '%s', output->o_escape:%d\n", val, output->o_escape);
			}
		} /* default: */
		} /* switch (char after <SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL>) */

		if (val) {
			o_addQstr(output, val, strlen(val));
		}
		free(to_be_freed);
		/* Do the check to avoid writing to a const string */
		if (*p != SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL)
			*p = SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL;

#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
		o_free(&subst_result);
#endif
		arg = ++p;
	} /* end of "while (SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL is found) ..." */

	if (arg[0]) {
		debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[a]", output, n);
		/* this part is literal, and it was already pre-quoted
		 * if needed (much earlier), do not use o_addQstr here! */
		o_addstr_with_NUL(output, arg);
		debug_print_list("expand_vars_to_list[b]", output, n);
	} else if (output->length == o_get_last_ptr(output, n) /* expansion is empty */
	 && !(ored_ch & 0x80) /* and all vars were not quoted. */
	) {
		n--;
		/* allow to reuse list[n] later without re-growth */
		output->has_empty_slot = 1;
	} else {
		o_addchr(output, '\0');
	}
	return n;
}

static char **expand_variables(char **argv, int or_mask)
{
	int n;
	char **list;
	char **v;
	o_string output = NULL_O_STRING;

	if (or_mask & 0x100) {
		output.o_escape = 1; /* protect against globbing for "$var" */
		/* (unquoted $var will temporarily switch it off) */
		output.o_glob = 1;
	}

	n = 0;
	v = argv;
	while (*v) {
		n = expand_vars_to_list(&output, n, *v, (unsigned char)or_mask);
		v++;
	}
	debug_print_list("expand_variables", &output, n);

	/* output.data (malloced in one block) gets returned in "list" */
	list = o_finalize_list(&output, n);
	debug_print_strings("expand_variables[1]", list);
	return list;
}

static char **expand_strvec_to_strvec(char **argv)
{
	return expand_variables(argv, 0x100);
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
static char **expand_strvec_to_strvec_singleword_noglob(char **argv)
{
	return expand_variables(argv, 0x80);
}
#endif

#ifdef CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND
static char **expand_strvec_to_strvec_singleword_noglob_cond(char **argv)
{
	int n;
	char **list;
	char **v;
	o_string output = NULL_O_STRING;

	n = 0;
	v = argv;
	while (*v) {
		int is_var = is_well_formed_var_name(*v, '=');
		/* is_var * 0x80: singleword expansion for vars */
		n = expand_vars_to_list(&output, n, *v, is_var * 0x80);

		/* Subtle! expand_vars_to_list did not glob last word yet.
		 * It does this only when fed with further data.
		 * Therefore we set globbing flags AFTER it, not before:
		 */

		/* if it is not recognizably abc=...; then: */
		output.o_escape = !is_var; /* protect against globbing for "$var" */
		/* (unquoted $var will temporarily switch it off) */
		output.o_glob = !is_var; /* and indeed do globbing */
		v++;
	}
	debug_print_list("expand_cond", &output, n);

	/* output.data (malloced in one block) gets returned in "list" */
	list = o_finalize_list(&output, n);
	debug_print_strings("expand_cond[1]", list);
	return list;
}
#endif

/* Used for expansion of right hand of assignments */
/* NB: should NOT do globbing! "export v=/bin/c*; env | grep ^v=" outputs
 * "v=/bin/c*" */
static char *expand_string_to_string(const char *str)
{
	char *argv[2], **list;

	argv[0] = (char*)str;
	argv[1] = NULL;
	list = expand_variables(argv, 0x80); /* 0x80: singleword expansion */
	if (HUSH_DEBUG)
		if (!list[0] || list[1])
			bb_error_msg_and_die("BUG in varexp2");
	/* actually, just move string 2*sizeof(char*) bytes back */
	overlapping_strcpy((char*)list, list[0]);
	unbackslash((char*)list);
	debug_printf_expand("string_to_string='%s'\n", (char*)list);
	return (char*)list;
}

/* Used for "eval" builtin */
static char* expand_strvec_to_string(char **argv)
{
	char **list;

	list = expand_variables(argv, 0x80);
	/* Convert all NULs to spaces */
	if (list[0]) {
		int n = 1;
		while (list[n]) {
			if (HUSH_DEBUG)
				if (list[n-1] + strlen(list[n-1]) + 1 != list[n])
					bb_error_msg_and_die("BUG in varexp3");
			/* bash uses ' ' regardless of $IFS contents */
			list[n][-1] = ' ';
			n++;
		}
	}
	overlapping_strcpy((char*)list, list[0]);
	debug_printf_expand("strvec_to_string='%s'\n", (char*)list);
	return (char*)list;
}

static char **expand_assignments(char **argv, int count)
{
	int i;
	char **p;

	G.expanded_assignments = p = NULL;
	/* Expand assignments into one string each */
	for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		G.expanded_assignments = p = add_string_to_strings(p, expand_string_to_string(argv[i]));
	}
	G.expanded_assignments = NULL;
	return p;
}


#if BB_MMU
/* never called */
void re_execute_shell(char ***to_free, const char *s,
		char *g_argv0, char **g_argv,
		char **builtin_argv) NORETURN;

static void reset_traps_to_defaults(void)
{
	/* This function is always called in a child shell
	 * after fork (not vfork, NOMMU doesn't use this function).
	 */
	unsigned sig;
	unsigned mask;

	/* Child shells are not interactive.
	 * SIGTTIN/SIGTTOU/SIGTSTP should not have special handling.
	 * Testcase: (while :; do :; done) + ^Z should background.
	 * Same goes for SIGTERM, SIGHUP, SIGINT.
	 */
	if (!G.traps && !(G.non_DFL_mask & SPECIAL_INTERACTIVE_SIGS))
		return; /* already no traps and no SPECIAL_INTERACTIVE_SIGS */

	/* Switching off SPECIAL_INTERACTIVE_SIGS.
	 * Stupid. It can be done with *single* &= op, but we can't use
	 * the fact that G.blocked_set is implemented as a bitmask
	 * in libc... */
	mask = (SPECIAL_INTERACTIVE_SIGS >> 1);
	sig = 1;
	while (1) {
		if (mask & 1) {
			/* Careful. Only if no trap or trap is not "" */
			if (!G.traps || !G.traps[sig] || G.traps[sig][0])
				sigdelset(&G.blocked_set, sig);
		}
		mask >>= 1;
		if (!mask)
			break;
		sig++;
	}
	/* Our homegrown sig mask is saner to work with :) */
	G.non_DFL_mask &= ~SPECIAL_INTERACTIVE_SIGS;

	/* Resetting all traps to default except empty ones */
	mask = G.non_DFL_mask;
	if (G.traps) for (sig = 0; sig < NSIG; sig++, mask >>= 1) {
		if (!G.traps[sig] || !G.traps[sig][0])
			continue;
		free(G.traps[sig]);
		G.traps[sig] = NULL;
		/* There is no signal for 0 (EXIT) */
		if (sig == 0)
			continue;
		/* There was a trap handler, we just removed it.
		 * But if sig still has non-DFL handling,
		 * we should not unblock the sig. */
		if (mask & 1)
			continue;
		sigdelset(&G.blocked_set, sig);
	}
	sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &G.blocked_set, NULL);
}

#else /* !BB_MMU */

static void re_execute_shell(char ***to_free, const char *s,
		char *g_argv0, char **g_argv,
		char **builtin_argv) NORETURN;
static void re_execute_shell(char ***to_free, const char *s,
		char *g_argv0, char **g_argv,
		char **builtin_argv)
{
# define NOMMU_HACK_FMT ("-$%x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%llx" IF_HUSH_LOOPS(":%x"))
	/* delims + 2 * (number of bytes in printed hex numbers) */
	char param_buf[sizeof(NOMMU_HACK_FMT) + 2 * (sizeof(int)*6 + sizeof(long long)*1)];
	char *heredoc_argv[4];
	struct variable *cur;
# if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	struct function *funcp;
# endif
	char **argv, **pp;
	unsigned cnt;
	unsigned long long empty_trap_mask;

	if (!g_argv0) { /* heredoc */
		argv = heredoc_argv;
		argv[0] = (char *) G.argv0_for_re_execing;
		argv[1] = (char *) "-<";
		argv[2] = (char *) s;
		argv[3] = NULL;
		pp = &argv[3]; /* used as pointer to empty environment */
		goto do_exec;
	}

	cnt = 0;
	pp = builtin_argv;
	if (pp) while (*pp++)
		cnt++;

	empty_trap_mask = 0;
	if (G.traps) {
		int sig;
		for (sig = 1; sig < NSIG; sig++) {
			if (G.traps[sig] && !G.traps[sig][0])
				empty_trap_mask |= 1LL << sig;
		}
	}

	sprintf(param_buf, NOMMU_HACK_FMT
			, (unsigned) G.root_pid
			, (unsigned) G.root_ppid
			, (unsigned) G.last_bg_pid
			, (unsigned) G.last_exitcode
			, cnt
			, empty_trap_mask
			IF_HUSH_LOOPS(, G.depth_of_loop)
			);
# undef NOMMU_HACK_FMT
	/* 1:hush 2:-$<pid>:<pid>:<exitcode>:<etc...> <vars...> <funcs...>
	 * 3:-c 4:<cmd> 5:<arg0> <argN...> 6:NULL
	 */
	cnt += 6;
	for (cur = G.top_var; cur; cur = cur->next) {
		if (!cur->flg_export || cur->flg_read_only)
			cnt += 2;
	}
# if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	for (funcp = G.top_func; funcp; funcp = funcp->next)
		cnt += 3;
# endif
	pp = g_argv;
	while (*pp++)
		cnt++;
	*to_free = argv = pp = xzalloc(sizeof(argv[0]) * cnt);
	*pp++ = (char *) G.argv0_for_re_execing;
	*pp++ = param_buf;
	for (cur = G.top_var; cur; cur = cur->next) {
		if (cur->varstr == hush_version_str)
			continue;
		if (cur->flg_read_only) {
			*pp++ = (char *) "-R";
			*pp++ = cur->varstr;
		} else if (!cur->flg_export) {
			*pp++ = (char *) "-V";
			*pp++ = cur->varstr;
		}
	}
# if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	for (funcp = G.top_func; funcp; funcp = funcp->next) {
		*pp++ = (char *) "-F";
		*pp++ = funcp->name;
		*pp++ = funcp->body_as_string;
	}
# endif
	/* We can pass activated traps here. Say, -Tnn:trap_string
	 *
	 * However, POSIX says that subshells reset signals with traps
	 * to SIG_DFL.
	 * I tested bash-3.2 and it not only does that with true subshells
	 * of the form ( list ), but with any forked children shells.
	 * I set trap "echo W" WINCH; and then tried:
	 *
	 * { echo 1; sleep 20; echo 2; } &
	 * while true; do echo 1; sleep 20; echo 2; break; done &
	 * true | { echo 1; sleep 20; echo 2; } | cat
	 *
	 * In all these cases sending SIGWINCH to the child shell
	 * did not run the trap. If I add trap "echo V" WINCH;
	 * _inside_ group (just before echo 1), it works.
	 *
	 * I conclude it means we don't need to pass active traps here.
	 * Even if we would use signal handlers instead of signal masking
	 * in order to implement trap handling,
	 * exec syscall below resets signals to SIG_DFL for us.
	 */
	*pp++ = (char *) "-c";
	*pp++ = (char *) s;
	if (builtin_argv) {
		while (*++builtin_argv)
			*pp++ = *builtin_argv;
		*pp++ = (char *) "";
	}
	*pp++ = g_argv0;
	while (*g_argv)
		*pp++ = *g_argv++;
	/* *pp = NULL; - is already there */
	pp = environ;

 do_exec:
	debug_printf_exec("re_execute_shell pid:%d cmd:'%s'\n", getpid(), s);
	sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &G.inherited_set, NULL);
	execve(bb_busybox_exec_path, argv, pp);
	/* Fallback. Useful for init=/bin/hush usage etc */
	if (argv[0][0] == '/')
		execve(argv[0], argv, pp);
	xfunc_error_retval = 127;
	bb_error_msg_and_die("can't re-execute the shell");
}
#endif  /* !BB_MMU */


static void setup_heredoc(struct redir_struct *redir)
{
	struct fd_pair pair;
	pid_t pid;
	int len, written;
	/* the _body_ of heredoc (misleading field name) */
	const char *heredoc = redir->rd_filename;
	char *expanded;
#if !BB_MMU
	char **to_free;
#endif

	expanded = NULL;
	if (!(redir->rd_dup & HEREDOC_QUOTED)) {
		expanded = expand_pseudo_dquoted(heredoc);
		if (expanded)
			heredoc = expanded;
	}
	len = strlen(heredoc);

	close(redir->rd_fd); /* often saves dup2+close in xmove_fd */
	xpiped_pair(pair);
	xmove_fd(pair.rd, redir->rd_fd);

	/* Try writing without forking. Newer kernels have
	 * dynamically growing pipes. Must use non-blocking write! */
	ndelay_on(pair.wr);
	while (1) {
		written = write(pair.wr, heredoc, len);
		if (written <= 0)
			break;
		len -= written;
		if (len == 0) {
			close(pair.wr);
			free(expanded);
			return;
		}
		heredoc += written;
	}
	ndelay_off(pair.wr);

	/* Okay, pipe buffer was not big enough */
	/* Note: we must not create a stray child (bastard? :)
	 * for the unsuspecting parent process. Child creates a grandchild
	 * and exits before parent execs the process which consumes heredoc
	 * (that exec happens after we return from this function) */
#if !BB_MMU
	to_free = NULL;
#endif
	pid = xvfork();
	if (pid == 0) {
		/* child */
		disable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit();
		pid = BB_MMU ? xfork() : xvfork();
		if (pid != 0)
			_exit(0);
		/* grandchild */
		close(redir->rd_fd); /* read side of the pipe */
#if BB_MMU
		full_write(pair.wr, heredoc, len); /* may loop or block */
		_exit(0);
#else
		/* Delegate blocking writes to another process */
		xmove_fd(pair.wr, STDOUT_FILENO);
		re_execute_shell(&to_free, heredoc, NULL, NULL, NULL);
#endif
	}
	/* parent */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
	G.count_SIGCHLD++;
//bb_error_msg("[%d] fork in setup_heredoc: G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d", getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD);
#endif
	enable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit();
#if !BB_MMU
	free(to_free);
#endif
	close(pair.wr);
	free(expanded);
	wait(NULL); /* wait till child has died */
}

/* squirrel != NULL means we squirrel away copies of stdin, stdout,
 * and stderr if they are redirected. */
static int setup_redirects(struct command *prog, int squirrel[])
{
	int openfd, mode;
	struct redir_struct *redir;

	for (redir = prog->redirects; redir; redir = redir->next) {
		if (redir->rd_type == REDIRECT_HEREDOC2) {
			/* rd_fd<<HERE case */
			if (squirrel && redir->rd_fd < 3
			 && squirrel[redir->rd_fd] < 0
			) {
				squirrel[redir->rd_fd] = dup(redir->rd_fd);
			}
			/* for REDIRECT_HEREDOC2, rd_filename holds _contents_
			 * of the heredoc */
			debug_printf_parse("set heredoc '%s'\n",
					redir->rd_filename);
			setup_heredoc(redir);
			continue;
		}

		if (redir->rd_dup == REDIRFD_TO_FILE) {
			/* rd_fd<*>file case (<*> is <,>,>>,<>) */
			char *p;
			if (redir->rd_filename == NULL) {
				/* Something went wrong in the parse.
				 * Pretend it didn't happen */
				bb_error_msg("bug in redirect parse");
				continue;
			}
			mode = redir_table[redir->rd_type].mode;
			p = expand_string_to_string(redir->rd_filename);
			openfd = open_or_warn(p, mode);
			free(p);
			if (openfd < 0) {
			/* this could get lost if stderr has been redirected, but
			 * bash and ash both lose it as well (though zsh doesn't!) */
//what the above comment tries to say?
				return 1;
			}
		} else {
			/* rd_fd<*>rd_dup or rd_fd<*>- cases */
			openfd = redir->rd_dup;
		}

		if (openfd != redir->rd_fd) {
			if (squirrel && redir->rd_fd < 3
			 && squirrel[redir->rd_fd] < 0
			) {
				squirrel[redir->rd_fd] = dup(redir->rd_fd);
			}
			if (openfd == REDIRFD_CLOSE) {
				/* "n>-" means "close me" */
				close(redir->rd_fd);
			} else {
				xdup2(openfd, redir->rd_fd);
				if (redir->rd_dup == REDIRFD_TO_FILE)
					close(openfd);
			}
		}
	}
	return 0;
}

static void restore_redirects(int squirrel[])
{
	int i, fd;
	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
		fd = squirrel[i];
		if (fd != -1) {
			/* We simply die on error */
			xmove_fd(fd, i);
		}
	}
}


static void free_pipe_list(struct pipe *head);

/* Return code is the exit status of the pipe */
static void free_pipe(struct pipe *pi)
{
	char **p;
	struct command *command;
	struct redir_struct *r, *rnext;
	int a, i;

	if (pi->stopped_cmds > 0) /* why? */
		return;
	debug_printf_clean("run pipe: (pid %d)\n", getpid());
	for (i = 0; i < pi->num_cmds; i++) {
		command = &pi->cmds[i];
		debug_printf_clean("  command %d:\n", i);
		if (command->argv) {
			for (a = 0, p = command->argv; *p; a++, p++) {
				debug_printf_clean("   argv[%d] = %s\n", a, *p);
			}
			free_strings(command->argv);
			command->argv = NULL;
		}
		/* not "else if": on syntax error, we may have both! */
		if (command->group) {
			debug_printf_clean("   begin group (cmd_type:%d)\n",
					command->cmd_type);
			free_pipe_list(command->group);
			debug_printf_clean("   end group\n");
			command->group = NULL;
		}
		/* else is crucial here.
		 * If group != NULL, child_func is meaningless */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
		else if (command->child_func) {
			debug_printf_exec("cmd %p releases child func at %p\n", command, command->child_func);
			command->child_func->parent_cmd = NULL;
		}
#endif
#if !BB_MMU
		free(command->group_as_string);
		command->group_as_string = NULL;
#endif
		for (r = command->redirects; r; r = rnext) {
			debug_printf_clean("   redirect %d%s",
					r->rd_fd, redir_table[r->rd_type].descrip);
			/* guard against the case >$FOO, where foo is unset or blank */
			if (r->rd_filename) {
				debug_printf_clean(" fname:'%s'\n", r->rd_filename);
				free(r->rd_filename);
				r->rd_filename = NULL;
			}
			debug_printf_clean(" rd_dup:%d\n", r->rd_dup);
			rnext = r->next;
			free(r);
		}
		command->redirects = NULL;
	}
	free(pi->cmds);   /* children are an array, they get freed all at once */
	pi->cmds = NULL;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	free(pi->cmdtext);
	pi->cmdtext = NULL;
#endif
}

static void free_pipe_list(struct pipe *head)
{
	struct pipe *pi, *next;

	for (pi = head; pi; pi = next) {
#if HAS_KEYWORDS
		debug_printf_clean(" pipe reserved word %d\n", pi->res_word);
#endif
		free_pipe(pi);
		debug_printf_clean("pipe followup code %d\n", pi->followup);
		next = pi->next;
		/*pi->next = NULL;*/
		free(pi);
	}
}


static int run_list(struct pipe *pi);
#if BB_MMU
#define parse_stream(pstring, input, end_trigger) \
	parse_stream(input, end_trigger)
#endif
static struct pipe *parse_stream(char **pstring,
		struct in_str *input,
		int end_trigger);
static void parse_and_run_string(const char *s);


static char *find_in_path(const char *arg)
{
	char *ret = NULL;
	const char *PATH = get_local_var_value("PATH");

	if (!PATH)
		return NULL;

	while (1) {
		const char *end = strchrnul(PATH, ':');
		int sz = end - PATH; /* must be int! */

		free(ret);
		if (sz != 0) {
			ret = xasprintf("%.*s/%s", sz, PATH, arg);
		} else {
			/* We have xxx::yyyy in $PATH,
			 * it means "use current dir" */
			ret = xstrdup(arg);
		}
		if (access(ret, F_OK) == 0)
			break;

		if (*end == '\0') {
			free(ret);
			return NULL;
		}
		PATH = end + 1;
	}

	return ret;
}

static const struct built_in_command* find_builtin_helper(const char *name,
		const struct built_in_command *x,
		const struct built_in_command *end)
{
	while (x != end) {
		if (strcmp(name, x->b_cmd) != 0) {
			x++;
			continue;
		}
		debug_printf_exec("found builtin '%s'\n", name);
		return x;
	}
	return NULL;
}
static const struct built_in_command* find_builtin1(const char *name)
{
	return find_builtin_helper(name, bltins1, &bltins1[ARRAY_SIZE(bltins1)]);
}
static const struct built_in_command* find_builtin(const char *name)
{
	const struct built_in_command *x = find_builtin1(name);
	if (x)
		return x;
	return find_builtin_helper(name, bltins2, &bltins2[ARRAY_SIZE(bltins2)]);
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
static struct function **find_function_slot(const char *name)
{
	struct function **funcpp = &G.top_func;
	while (*funcpp) {
		if (strcmp(name, (*funcpp)->name) == 0) {
			break;
		}
		funcpp = &(*funcpp)->next;
	}
	return funcpp;
}

static const struct function *find_function(const char *name)
{
	const struct function *funcp = *find_function_slot(name);
	if (funcp)
		debug_printf_exec("found function '%s'\n", name);
	return funcp;
}

/* Note: takes ownership on name ptr */
static struct function *new_function(char *name)
{
	struct function **funcpp = find_function_slot(name);
	struct function *funcp = *funcpp;

	if (funcp != NULL) {
		struct command *cmd = funcp->parent_cmd;
		debug_printf_exec("func %p parent_cmd %p\n", funcp, cmd);
		if (!cmd) {
			debug_printf_exec("freeing & replacing function '%s'\n", funcp->name);
			free(funcp->name);
			/* Note: if !funcp->body, do not free body_as_string!
			 * This is a special case of "-F name body" function:
			 * body_as_string was not malloced! */
			if (funcp->body) {
				free_pipe_list(funcp->body);
# if !BB_MMU
				free(funcp->body_as_string);
# endif
			}
		} else {
			debug_printf_exec("reinserting in tree & replacing function '%s'\n", funcp->name);
			cmd->argv[0] = funcp->name;
			cmd->group = funcp->body;
# if !BB_MMU
			cmd->group_as_string = funcp->body_as_string;
# endif
		}
	} else {
		debug_printf_exec("remembering new function '%s'\n", name);
		funcp = *funcpp = xzalloc(sizeof(*funcp));
		/*funcp->next = NULL;*/
	}

	funcp->name = name;
	return funcp;
}

static void unset_func(const char *name)
{
	struct function **funcpp = find_function_slot(name);
	struct function *funcp = *funcpp;

	if (funcp != NULL) {
		debug_printf_exec("freeing function '%s'\n", funcp->name);
		*funcpp = funcp->next;
		/* funcp is unlinked now, deleting it.
		 * Note: if !funcp->body, the function was created by
		 * "-F name body", do not free ->body_as_string
		 * and ->name as they were not malloced. */
		if (funcp->body) {
			free_pipe_list(funcp->body);
			free(funcp->name);
# if !BB_MMU
			free(funcp->body_as_string);
# endif
		}
		free(funcp);
	}
}

# if BB_MMU
#define exec_function(to_free, funcp, argv) \
	exec_function(funcp, argv)
# endif
static void exec_function(char ***to_free,
		const struct function *funcp,
		char **argv) NORETURN;
static void exec_function(char ***to_free,
		const struct function *funcp,
		char **argv)
{
# if BB_MMU
	int n = 1;

	argv[0] = G.global_argv[0];
	G.global_argv = argv;
	while (*++argv)
		n++;
	G.global_argc = n;
	/* On MMU, funcp->body is always non-NULL */
	n = run_list(funcp->body);
	fflush_all();
	_exit(n);
# else
	re_execute_shell(to_free,
			funcp->body_as_string,
			G.global_argv[0],
			argv + 1,
			NULL);
# endif
}

static int run_function(const struct function *funcp, char **argv)
{
	int rc;
	save_arg_t sv;
	smallint sv_flg;

	save_and_replace_G_args(&sv, argv);

	/* "we are in function, ok to use return" */
	sv_flg = G.flag_return_in_progress;
	G.flag_return_in_progress = -1;
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
	G.func_nest_level++;
# endif

	/* On MMU, funcp->body is always non-NULL */
# if !BB_MMU
	if (!funcp->body) {
		/* Function defined by -F */
		parse_and_run_string(funcp->body_as_string);
		rc = G.last_exitcode;
	} else
# endif
	{
		rc = run_list(funcp->body);
	}

# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
	{
		struct variable *var;
		struct variable **var_pp;

		var_pp = &G.top_var;
		while ((var = *var_pp) != NULL) {
			if (var->func_nest_level < G.func_nest_level) {
				var_pp = &var->next;
				continue;
			}
			/* Unexport */
			if (var->flg_export)
				bb_unsetenv(var->varstr);
			/* Remove from global list */
			*var_pp = var->next;
			/* Free */
			if (!var->max_len)
				free(var->varstr);
			free(var);
		}
		G.func_nest_level--;
	}
# endif
	G.flag_return_in_progress = sv_flg;

	restore_G_args(&sv, argv);

	return rc;
}
#endif /* ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS */


#if BB_MMU
#define exec_builtin(to_free, x, argv) \
	exec_builtin(x, argv)
#else
#define exec_builtin(to_free, x, argv) \
	exec_builtin(to_free, argv)
#endif
static void exec_builtin(char ***to_free,
		const struct built_in_command *x,
		char **argv) NORETURN;
static void exec_builtin(char ***to_free,
		const struct built_in_command *x,
		char **argv)
{
#if BB_MMU
	int rcode = x->b_function(argv);
	fflush_all();
	_exit(rcode);
#else
	/* On NOMMU, we must never block!
	 * Example: { sleep 99 | read line; } & echo Ok
	 */
	re_execute_shell(to_free,
			argv[0],
			G.global_argv[0],
			G.global_argv + 1,
			argv);
#endif
}


static void execvp_or_die(char **argv) NORETURN;
static void execvp_or_die(char **argv)
{
	debug_printf_exec("execing '%s'\n", argv[0]);
	sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &G.inherited_set, NULL);
	execvp(argv[0], argv);
	bb_perror_msg("can't execute '%s'", argv[0]);
	_exit(127); /* bash compat */
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_MODE_X
static void dump_cmd_in_x_mode(char **argv)
{
	if (G_x_mode && argv) {
		/* We want to output the line in one write op */
		char *buf, *p;
		int len;
		int n;

		len = 3;
		n = 0;
		while (argv[n])
			len += strlen(argv[n++]) + 1;
		buf = xmalloc(len);
		buf[0] = '+';
		p = buf + 1;
		n = 0;
		while (argv[n])
			p += sprintf(p, " %s", argv[n++]);
		*p++ = '\n';
		*p = '\0';
		fputs(buf, stderr);
		free(buf);
	}
}
#else
# define dump_cmd_in_x_mode(argv) ((void)0)
#endif

#if BB_MMU
#define pseudo_exec_argv(nommu_save, argv, assignment_cnt, argv_expanded) \
	pseudo_exec_argv(argv, assignment_cnt, argv_expanded)
#define pseudo_exec(nommu_save, command, argv_expanded) \
	pseudo_exec(command, argv_expanded)
#endif

/* Called after [v]fork() in run_pipe, or from builtin_exec.
 * Never returns.
 * Don't exit() here.  If you don't exec, use _exit instead.
 * The at_exit handlers apparently confuse the calling process,
 * in particular stdin handling.  Not sure why? -- because of vfork! (vda) */
static void pseudo_exec_argv(nommu_save_t *nommu_save,
		char **argv, int assignment_cnt,
		char **argv_expanded) NORETURN;
static NOINLINE void pseudo_exec_argv(nommu_save_t *nommu_save,
		char **argv, int assignment_cnt,
		char **argv_expanded)
{
	char **new_env;

	new_env = expand_assignments(argv, assignment_cnt);
	dump_cmd_in_x_mode(new_env);

	if (!argv[assignment_cnt]) {
		/* Case when we are here: ... | var=val | ...
		 * (note that we do not exit early, i.e., do not optimize out
		 * expand_assignments(): think about ... | var=`sleep 1` | ...
		 */
		free_strings(new_env);
		_exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
	}

#if BB_MMU
	set_vars_and_save_old(new_env);
	free(new_env); /* optional */
	/* we can also destroy set_vars_and_save_old's return value,
	 * to save memory */
#else
	nommu_save->new_env = new_env;
	nommu_save->old_vars = set_vars_and_save_old(new_env);
#endif

	if (argv_expanded) {
		argv = argv_expanded;
	} else {
		argv = expand_strvec_to_strvec(argv + assignment_cnt);
#if !BB_MMU
		nommu_save->argv = argv;
#endif
	}
	dump_cmd_in_x_mode(argv);

#if ENABLE_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE || BB_MMU
	if (strchr(argv[0], '/') != NULL)
		goto skip;
#endif

	/* Check if the command matches any of the builtins.
	 * Depending on context, this might be redundant.  But it's
	 * easier to waste a few CPU cycles than it is to figure out
	 * if this is one of those cases.
	 */
	{
		/* On NOMMU, it is more expensive to re-execute shell
		 * just in order to run echo or test builtin.
		 * It's better to skip it here and run corresponding
		 * non-builtin later. */
		const struct built_in_command *x;
		x = BB_MMU ? find_builtin(argv[0]) : find_builtin1(argv[0]);
		if (x) {
			exec_builtin(&nommu_save->argv_from_re_execing, x, argv);
		}
	}
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	/* Check if the command matches any functions */
	{
		const struct function *funcp = find_function(argv[0]);
		if (funcp) {
			exec_function(&nommu_save->argv_from_re_execing, funcp, argv);
		}
	}
#endif

#if ENABLE_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE
	/* Check if the command matches any busybox applets */
	{
		int a = find_applet_by_name(argv[0]);
		if (a >= 0) {
# if BB_MMU /* see above why on NOMMU it is not allowed */
			if (APPLET_IS_NOEXEC(a)) {
				debug_printf_exec("running applet '%s'\n", argv[0]);
				run_applet_no_and_exit(a, argv);
			}
# endif
			/* Re-exec ourselves */
			debug_printf_exec("re-execing applet '%s'\n", argv[0]);
			sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &G.inherited_set, NULL);
			execv(bb_busybox_exec_path, argv);
			/* If they called chroot or otherwise made the binary no longer
			 * executable, fall through */
		}
	}
#endif

#if ENABLE_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE || BB_MMU
 skip:
#endif
	execvp_or_die(argv);
}

/* Called after [v]fork() in run_pipe
 */
static void pseudo_exec(nommu_save_t *nommu_save,
		struct command *command,
		char **argv_expanded) NORETURN;
static void pseudo_exec(nommu_save_t *nommu_save,
		struct command *command,
		char **argv_expanded)
{
	if (command->argv) {
		pseudo_exec_argv(nommu_save, command->argv,
				command->assignment_cnt, argv_expanded);
	}

	if (command->group) {
		/* Cases when we are here:
		 * ( list )
		 * { list } &
		 * ... | ( list ) | ...
		 * ... | { list } | ...
		 */
#if BB_MMU
		int rcode;
		debug_printf_exec("pseudo_exec: run_list\n");
		reset_traps_to_defaults();
		rcode = run_list(command->group);
		/* OK to leak memory by not calling free_pipe_list,
		 * since this process is about to exit */
		_exit(rcode);
#else
		re_execute_shell(&nommu_save->argv_from_re_execing,
				command->group_as_string,
				G.global_argv[0],
				G.global_argv + 1,
				NULL);
#endif
	}

	/* Case when we are here: ... | >file */
	debug_printf_exec("pseudo_exec'ed null command\n");
	_exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
static const char *get_cmdtext(struct pipe *pi)
{
	char **argv;
	char *p;
	int len;

	/* This is subtle. ->cmdtext is created only on first backgrounding.
	 * (Think "cat, <ctrl-z>, fg, <ctrl-z>, fg, <ctrl-z>...." here...)
	 * On subsequent bg argv is trashed, but we won't use it */
	if (pi->cmdtext)
		return pi->cmdtext;
	argv = pi->cmds[0].argv;
	if (!argv || !argv[0]) {
		pi->cmdtext = xzalloc(1);
		return pi->cmdtext;
	}

	len = 0;
	do {
		len += strlen(*argv) + 1;
	} while (*++argv);
	p = xmalloc(len);
	pi->cmdtext = p;
	argv = pi->cmds[0].argv;
	do {
		len = strlen(*argv);
		memcpy(p, *argv, len);
		p += len;
		*p++ = ' ';
	} while (*++argv);
	p[-1] = '\0';
	return pi->cmdtext;
}

static void insert_bg_job(struct pipe *pi)
{
	struct pipe *job, **jobp;
	int i;

	/* Linear search for the ID of the job to use */
	pi->jobid = 1;
	for (job = G.job_list; job; job = job->next)
		if (job->jobid >= pi->jobid)
			pi->jobid = job->jobid + 1;

	/* Add job to the list of running jobs */
	jobp = &G.job_list;
	while ((job = *jobp) != NULL)
		jobp = &job->next;
	job = *jobp = xmalloc(sizeof(*job));

	*job = *pi; /* physical copy */
	job->next = NULL;
	job->cmds = xzalloc(sizeof(pi->cmds[0]) * pi->num_cmds);
	/* Cannot copy entire pi->cmds[] vector! This causes double frees */
	for (i = 0; i < pi->num_cmds; i++) {
		job->cmds[i].pid = pi->cmds[i].pid;
		/* all other fields are not used and stay zero */
	}
	job->cmdtext = xstrdup(get_cmdtext(pi));

	if (G_interactive_fd)
		printf("[%d] %d %s\n", job->jobid, job->cmds[0].pid, job->cmdtext);
	/* Last command's pid goes to $! */
	G.last_bg_pid = job->cmds[job->num_cmds - 1].pid;
	G.last_jobid = job->jobid;
}

static void remove_bg_job(struct pipe *pi)
{
	struct pipe *prev_pipe;

	if (pi == G.job_list) {
		G.job_list = pi->next;
	} else {
		prev_pipe = G.job_list;
		while (prev_pipe->next != pi)
			prev_pipe = prev_pipe->next;
		prev_pipe->next = pi->next;
	}
	if (G.job_list)
		G.last_jobid = G.job_list->jobid;
	else
		G.last_jobid = 0;
}

/* Remove a backgrounded job */
static void delete_finished_bg_job(struct pipe *pi)
{
	remove_bg_job(pi);
	pi->stopped_cmds = 0;
	free_pipe(pi);
	free(pi);
}
#endif /* JOB */

/* Check to see if any processes have exited -- if they
 * have, figure out why and see if a job has completed */
static int checkjobs(struct pipe* fg_pipe)
{
	int attributes;
	int status;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	struct pipe *pi;
#endif
	pid_t childpid;
	int rcode = 0;

	debug_printf_jobs("checkjobs %p\n", fg_pipe);

	attributes = WUNTRACED;
	if (fg_pipe == NULL)
		attributes |= WNOHANG;

	errno = 0;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
	if (G.handled_SIGCHLD == G.count_SIGCHLD) {
//bb_error_msg("[%d] checkjobs: G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d children?:%d fg_pipe:%p",
//getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD, G.we_have_children, fg_pipe);
		/* There was neither fork nor SIGCHLD since last waitpid */
		/* Avoid doing waitpid syscall if possible */
		if (!G.we_have_children) {
			errno = ECHILD;
			return -1;
		}
		if (fg_pipe == NULL) { /* is WNOHANG set? */
			/* We have children, but they did not exit
			 * or stop yet (we saw no SIGCHLD) */
			return 0;
		}
		/* else: !WNOHANG, waitpid will block, can't short-circuit */
	}
#endif

/* Do we do this right?
 * bash-3.00# sleep 20 | false
 * <ctrl-Z pressed>
 * [3]+  Stopped          sleep 20 | false
 * bash-3.00# echo $?
 * 1   <========== bg pipe is not fully done, but exitcode is already known!
 * [hush 1.14.0: yes we do it right]
 */
 wait_more:
	while (1) {
		int i;
		int dead;

#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
		i = G.count_SIGCHLD;
#endif
		childpid = waitpid(-1, &status, attributes);
		if (childpid <= 0) {
			if (childpid && errno != ECHILD)
				bb_perror_msg("waitpid");
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
			else { /* Until next SIGCHLD, waitpid's are useless */
				G.we_have_children = (childpid == 0);
				G.handled_SIGCHLD = i;
//bb_error_msg("[%d] checkjobs: waitpid returned <= 0, G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d", getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD);
			}
#endif
			break;
		}
		dead = WIFEXITED(status) || WIFSIGNALED(status);

#if DEBUG_JOBS
		if (WIFSTOPPED(status))
			debug_printf_jobs("pid %d stopped by sig %d (exitcode %d)\n",
					childpid, WSTOPSIG(status), WEXITSTATUS(status));
		if (WIFSIGNALED(status))
			debug_printf_jobs("pid %d killed by sig %d (exitcode %d)\n",
					childpid, WTERMSIG(status), WEXITSTATUS(status));
		if (WIFEXITED(status))
			debug_printf_jobs("pid %d exited, exitcode %d\n",
					childpid, WEXITSTATUS(status));
#endif
		/* Were we asked to wait for fg pipe? */
		if (fg_pipe) {
			for (i = 0; i < fg_pipe->num_cmds; i++) {
				debug_printf_jobs("check pid %d\n", fg_pipe->cmds[i].pid);
				if (fg_pipe->cmds[i].pid != childpid)
					continue;
				if (dead) {
					fg_pipe->cmds[i].pid = 0;
					fg_pipe->alive_cmds--;
					if (i == fg_pipe->num_cmds - 1) {
						/* last process gives overall exitstatus */
						rcode = WEXITSTATUS(status);
						/* bash prints killer signal's name for *last*
						 * process in pipe (prints just newline for SIGINT).
						 * Mimic this. Example: "sleep 5" + (^\ or kill -QUIT)
						 */
						if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) {
							int sig = WTERMSIG(status);
							printf("%s\n", sig == SIGINT ? "" : get_signame(sig));
							/* TODO: MIPS has 128 sigs (1..128), what if sig==128 here?
							 * Maybe we need to use sig | 128? */
							rcode = sig + 128;
						}
						IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(if (fg_pipe->pi_inverted) rcode = !rcode;)
					}
				} else {
					fg_pipe->cmds[i].is_stopped = 1;
					fg_pipe->stopped_cmds++;
				}
				debug_printf_jobs("fg_pipe: alive_cmds %d stopped_cmds %d\n",
						fg_pipe->alive_cmds, fg_pipe->stopped_cmds);
				if (fg_pipe->alive_cmds - fg_pipe->stopped_cmds <= 0) {
					/* All processes in fg pipe have exited or stopped */
/* Note: *non-interactive* bash does not continue if all processes in fg pipe
 * are stopped. Testcase: "cat | cat" in a script (not on command line!)
 * and "killall -STOP cat" */
					if (G_interactive_fd) {
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
						if (fg_pipe->alive_cmds)
							insert_bg_job(fg_pipe);
#endif
						return rcode;
					}
					if (!fg_pipe->alive_cmds)
						return rcode;
				}
				/* There are still running processes in the fg pipe */
				goto wait_more; /* do waitpid again */
			}
			/* it wasnt fg_pipe, look for process in bg pipes */
		}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
		/* We asked to wait for bg or orphaned children */
		/* No need to remember exitcode in this case */
		for (pi = G.job_list; pi; pi = pi->next) {
			for (i = 0; i < pi->num_cmds; i++) {
				if (pi->cmds[i].pid == childpid)
					goto found_pi_and_prognum;
			}
		}
		/* Happens when shell is used as init process (init=/bin/sh) */
		debug_printf("checkjobs: pid %d was not in our list!\n", childpid);
		continue; /* do waitpid again */

 found_pi_and_prognum:
		if (dead) {
			/* child exited */
			pi->cmds[i].pid = 0;
			pi->alive_cmds--;
			if (!pi->alive_cmds) {
				if (G_interactive_fd)
					printf(JOB_STATUS_FORMAT, pi->jobid,
							"Done", pi->cmdtext);
				delete_finished_bg_job(pi);
			}
		} else {
			/* child stopped */
			pi->cmds[i].is_stopped = 1;
			pi->stopped_cmds++;
		}
#endif
	} /* while (waitpid succeeds)... */

	return rcode;
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
static int checkjobs_and_fg_shell(struct pipe* fg_pipe)
{
	pid_t p;
	int rcode = checkjobs(fg_pipe);
	if (G_saved_tty_pgrp) {
		/* Job finished, move the shell to the foreground */
		p = getpgrp(); /* our process group id */
		debug_printf_jobs("fg'ing ourself: getpgrp()=%d\n", (int)p);
		tcsetpgrp(G_interactive_fd, p);
	}
	return rcode;
}
#endif

/* Start all the jobs, but don't wait for anything to finish.
 * See checkjobs().
 *
 * Return code is normally -1, when the caller has to wait for children
 * to finish to determine the exit status of the pipe.  If the pipe
 * is a simple builtin command, however, the action is done by the
 * time run_pipe returns, and the exit code is provided as the
 * return value.
 *
 * Returns -1 only if started some children. IOW: we have to
 * mask out retvals of builtins etc with 0xff!
 *
 * The only case when we do not need to [v]fork is when the pipe
 * is single, non-backgrounded, non-subshell command. Examples:
 * cmd ; ...   { list } ; ...
 * cmd && ...  { list } && ...
 * cmd || ...  { list } || ...
 * If it is, then we can run cmd as a builtin, NOFORK [do we do this?],
 * or (if SH_STANDALONE) an applet, and we can run the { list }
 * with run_list. If it isn't one of these, we fork and exec cmd.
 *
 * Cases when we must fork:
 * non-single:   cmd | cmd
 * backgrounded: cmd &     { list } &
 * subshell:     ( list ) [&]
 */
#if !ENABLE_HUSH_MODE_X
#define redirect_and_varexp_helper(new_env_p, old_vars_p, command, squirrel, char argv_expanded) \
	redirect_and_varexp_helper(new_env_p, old_vars_p, command, squirrel)
#endif
static int redirect_and_varexp_helper(char ***new_env_p, struct variable **old_vars_p, struct command *command, int squirrel[3], char **argv_expanded)
{
	/* setup_redirects acts on file descriptors, not FILEs.
	 * This is perfect for work that comes after exec().
	 * Is it really safe for inline use?  Experimentally,
	 * things seem to work. */
	int rcode = setup_redirects(command, squirrel);
	if (rcode == 0) {
		char **new_env = expand_assignments(command->argv, command->assignment_cnt);
		*new_env_p = new_env;
		dump_cmd_in_x_mode(new_env);
		dump_cmd_in_x_mode(argv_expanded);
		if (old_vars_p)
			*old_vars_p = set_vars_and_save_old(new_env);
	}
	return rcode;
}
static NOINLINE int run_pipe(struct pipe *pi)
{
	static const char *const null_ptr = NULL;

	int cmd_no;
	int next_infd;
	struct command *command;
	char **argv_expanded;
	char **argv;
	/* it is not always needed, but we aim to smaller code */
	int squirrel[] = { -1, -1, -1 };
	int rcode;

	debug_printf_exec("run_pipe start: members:%d\n", pi->num_cmds);
	debug_enter();

	IF_HUSH_JOB(pi->pgrp = -1;)
	pi->stopped_cmds = 0;
	command = &pi->cmds[0];
	argv_expanded = NULL;

	if (pi->num_cmds != 1
	 || pi->followup == PIPE_BG
	 || command->cmd_type == CMD_SUBSHELL
	) {
		goto must_fork;
	}

	pi->alive_cmds = 1;

	debug_printf_exec(": group:%p argv:'%s'\n",
		command->group, command->argv ? command->argv[0] : "NONE");

	if (command->group) {
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
		if (command->cmd_type == CMD_FUNCDEF) {
			/* "executing" func () { list } */
			struct function *funcp;

			funcp = new_function(command->argv[0]);
			/* funcp->name is already set to argv[0] */
			funcp->body = command->group;
# if !BB_MMU
			funcp->body_as_string = command->group_as_string;
			command->group_as_string = NULL;
# endif
			command->group = NULL;
			command->argv[0] = NULL;
			debug_printf_exec("cmd %p has child func at %p\n", command, funcp);
			funcp->parent_cmd = command;
			command->child_func = funcp;

			debug_printf_exec("run_pipe: return EXIT_SUCCESS\n");
			debug_leave();
			return EXIT_SUCCESS;
		}
#endif
		/* { list } */
		debug_printf("non-subshell group\n");
		rcode = 1; /* exitcode if redir failed */
		if (setup_redirects(command, squirrel) == 0) {
			debug_printf_exec(": run_list\n");
			rcode = run_list(command->group) & 0xff;
		}
		restore_redirects(squirrel);
		IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(if (pi->pi_inverted) rcode = !rcode;)
		debug_leave();
		debug_printf_exec("run_pipe: return %d\n", rcode);
		return rcode;
	}

	argv = command->argv ? command->argv : (char **) &null_ptr;
	{
		const struct built_in_command *x;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
		const struct function *funcp;
#else
		enum { funcp = 0 };
#endif
		char **new_env = NULL;
		struct variable *old_vars = NULL;

		if (argv[command->assignment_cnt] == NULL) {
			/* Assignments, but no command */
			/* Ensure redirects take effect (that is, create files).
			 * Try "a=t >file" */
#if 0 /* A few cases in testsuite fail with this code. FIXME */
			rcode = redirect_and_varexp_helper(&new_env, /*old_vars:*/ NULL, command, squirrel, /*argv_expanded:*/ NULL);
			/* Set shell variables */
			if (new_env) {
				argv = new_env;
				while (*argv) {
					set_local_var(*argv, /*exp:*/ 0, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
					/* Do we need to flag set_local_var() errors?
					 * "assignment to readonly var" and "putenv error"
					 */
					argv++;
				}
			}
			/* Redirect error sets $? to 1. Otherwise,
			 * if evaluating assignment value set $?, retain it.
			 * Try "false; q=`exit 2`; echo $?" - should print 2: */
			if (rcode == 0)
				rcode = G.last_exitcode;
			/* Exit, _skipping_ variable restoring code: */
			goto clean_up_and_ret0;

#else /* Older, bigger, but more correct code */

			rcode = setup_redirects(command, squirrel);
			restore_redirects(squirrel);
			/* Set shell variables */
			if (G_x_mode)
				bb_putchar_stderr('+');
			while (*argv) {
				char *p = expand_string_to_string(*argv);
				if (G_x_mode)
					fprintf(stderr, " %s", p);
				debug_printf_exec("set shell var:'%s'->'%s'\n",
						*argv, p);
				set_local_var(p, /*exp:*/ 0, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
				/* Do we need to flag set_local_var() errors?
				 * "assignment to readonly var" and "putenv error"
				 */
				argv++;
			}
			if (G_x_mode)
				bb_putchar_stderr('\n');
			/* Redirect error sets $? to 1. Otherwise,
			 * if evaluating assignment value set $?, retain it.
			 * Try "false; q=`exit 2`; echo $?" - should print 2: */
			if (rcode == 0)
				rcode = G.last_exitcode;
			IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(if (pi->pi_inverted) rcode = !rcode;)
			debug_leave();
			debug_printf_exec("run_pipe: return %d\n", rcode);
			return rcode;
#endif
		}

		/* Expand the rest into (possibly) many strings each */
		if (0) {}
#if ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
		else if (command->cmd_type == CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB) {
			argv_expanded = expand_strvec_to_strvec_singleword_noglob(argv + command->assignment_cnt);
		}
#endif
#ifdef CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND
		else if (command->cmd_type == CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND) {
			argv_expanded = expand_strvec_to_strvec_singleword_noglob_cond(argv + command->assignment_cnt);

		}
#endif
		else {
			argv_expanded = expand_strvec_to_strvec(argv + command->assignment_cnt);
		}

		/* if someone gives us an empty string: `cmd with empty output` */
		if (!argv_expanded[0]) {
			free(argv_expanded);
			debug_leave();
			return G.last_exitcode;
		}

		x = find_builtin(argv_expanded[0]);
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
		funcp = NULL;
		if (!x)
			funcp = find_function(argv_expanded[0]);
#endif
		if (x || funcp) {
			if (!funcp) {
				if (x->b_function == builtin_exec && argv_expanded[1] == NULL) {
					debug_printf("exec with redirects only\n");
					rcode = setup_redirects(command, NULL);
					goto clean_up_and_ret1;
				}
			}
			rcode = redirect_and_varexp_helper(&new_env, &old_vars, command, squirrel, argv_expanded);
			if (rcode == 0) {
				if (!funcp) {
					debug_printf_exec(": builtin '%s' '%s'...\n",
						x->b_cmd, argv_expanded[1]);
					rcode = x->b_function(argv_expanded) & 0xff;
					fflush_all();
				}
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
				else {
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
					struct variable **sv;
					sv = G.shadowed_vars_pp;
					G.shadowed_vars_pp = &old_vars;
# endif
					debug_printf_exec(": function '%s' '%s'...\n",
						funcp->name, argv_expanded[1]);
					rcode = run_function(funcp, argv_expanded) & 0xff;
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
					G.shadowed_vars_pp = sv;
# endif
				}
#endif
			}
 clean_up_and_ret:
			unset_vars(new_env);
			add_vars(old_vars);
/* clean_up_and_ret0: */
			restore_redirects(squirrel);
 clean_up_and_ret1:
			free(argv_expanded);
			IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(if (pi->pi_inverted) rcode = !rcode;)
			debug_leave();
			debug_printf_exec("run_pipe return %d\n", rcode);
			return rcode;
		}

		if (ENABLE_FEATURE_SH_STANDALONE) {
			int n = find_applet_by_name(argv_expanded[0]);
			if (n >= 0 && APPLET_IS_NOFORK(n)) {
				rcode = redirect_and_varexp_helper(&new_env, &old_vars, command, squirrel, argv_expanded);
				if (rcode == 0) {
					debug_printf_exec(": run_nofork_applet '%s' '%s'...\n",
						argv_expanded[0], argv_expanded[1]);
					rcode = run_nofork_applet(n, argv_expanded);
				}
				goto clean_up_and_ret;
			}
		}
		/* It is neither builtin nor applet. We must fork. */
	}

 must_fork:
	/* NB: argv_expanded may already be created, and that
	 * might include `cmd` runs! Do not rerun it! We *must*
	 * use argv_expanded if it's non-NULL */

	/* Going to fork a child per each pipe member */
	pi->alive_cmds = 0;
	next_infd = 0;

	cmd_no = 0;
	while (cmd_no < pi->num_cmds) {
		struct fd_pair pipefds;
#if !BB_MMU
		volatile nommu_save_t nommu_save;
		nommu_save.new_env = NULL;
		nommu_save.old_vars = NULL;
		nommu_save.argv = NULL;
		nommu_save.argv_from_re_execing = NULL;
#endif
		command = &pi->cmds[cmd_no];
		cmd_no++;
		if (command->argv) {
			debug_printf_exec(": pipe member '%s' '%s'...\n",
					command->argv[0], command->argv[1]);
		} else {
			debug_printf_exec(": pipe member with no argv\n");
		}

		/* pipes are inserted between pairs of commands */
		pipefds.rd = 0;
		pipefds.wr = 1;
		if (cmd_no < pi->num_cmds)
			xpiped_pair(pipefds);

		command->pid = BB_MMU ? fork() : vfork();
		if (!command->pid) { /* child */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
			disable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit();
			CLEAR_RANDOM_T(&G.random_gen); /* or else $RANDOM repeats in child */

			/* Every child adds itself to new process group
			 * with pgid == pid_of_first_child_in_pipe */
			if (G.run_list_level == 1 && G_interactive_fd) {
				pid_t pgrp;
				pgrp = pi->pgrp;
				if (pgrp < 0) /* true for 1st process only */
					pgrp = getpid();
				if (setpgid(0, pgrp) == 0
				 && pi->followup != PIPE_BG
				 && G_saved_tty_pgrp /* we have ctty */
				) {
					/* We do it in *every* child, not just first,
					 * to avoid races */
					tcsetpgrp(G_interactive_fd, pgrp);
				}
			}
#endif
			if (pi->alive_cmds == 0 && pi->followup == PIPE_BG) {
				/* 1st cmd in backgrounded pipe
				 * should have its stdin /dev/null'ed */
				close(0);
				if (open(bb_dev_null, O_RDONLY))
					xopen("/", O_RDONLY);
			} else {
				xmove_fd(next_infd, 0);
			}
			xmove_fd(pipefds.wr, 1);
			if (pipefds.rd > 1)
				close(pipefds.rd);
			/* Like bash, explicit redirects override pipes,
			 * and the pipe fd is available for dup'ing. */
			if (setup_redirects(command, NULL))
				_exit(1);

			/* Restore default handlers just prior to exec */
			/*signal(SIGCHLD, SIG_DFL); - so far we don't have any handlers */

			/* Stores to nommu_save list of env vars putenv'ed
			 * (NOMMU, on MMU we don't need that) */
			/* cast away volatility... */
			pseudo_exec((nommu_save_t*) &nommu_save, command, argv_expanded);
			/* pseudo_exec() does not return */
		}

		/* parent or error */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
		G.count_SIGCHLD++;
//bb_error_msg("[%d] fork in run_pipe: G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d", getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD);
#endif
		enable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit();
#if !BB_MMU
		/* Clean up after vforked child */
		free(nommu_save.argv);
		free(nommu_save.argv_from_re_execing);
		unset_vars(nommu_save.new_env);
		add_vars(nommu_save.old_vars);
#endif
		free(argv_expanded);
		argv_expanded = NULL;
		if (command->pid < 0) { /* [v]fork failed */
			/* Clearly indicate, was it fork or vfork */
			bb_perror_msg(BB_MMU ? "vfork"+1 : "vfork");
		} else {
			pi->alive_cmds++;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
			/* Second and next children need to know pid of first one */
			if (pi->pgrp < 0)
				pi->pgrp = command->pid;
#endif
		}

		if (cmd_no > 1)
			close(next_infd);
		if (cmd_no < pi->num_cmds)
			close(pipefds.wr);
		/* Pass read (output) pipe end to next iteration */
		next_infd = pipefds.rd;
	}

	if (!pi->alive_cmds) {
		debug_leave();
		debug_printf_exec("run_pipe return 1 (all forks failed, no children)\n");
		return 1;
	}

	debug_leave();
	debug_printf_exec("run_pipe return -1 (%u children started)\n", pi->alive_cmds);
	return -1;
}

#ifndef debug_print_tree
static void debug_print_tree(struct pipe *pi, int lvl)
{
	static const char *const PIPE[] = {
		[PIPE_SEQ] = "SEQ",
		[PIPE_AND] = "AND",
		[PIPE_OR ] = "OR" ,
		[PIPE_BG ] = "BG" ,
	};
	static const char *RES[] = {
		[RES_NONE ] = "NONE" ,
# if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
		[RES_IF   ] = "IF"   ,
		[RES_THEN ] = "THEN" ,
		[RES_ELIF ] = "ELIF" ,
		[RES_ELSE ] = "ELSE" ,
		[RES_FI   ] = "FI"   ,
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		[RES_FOR  ] = "FOR"  ,
		[RES_WHILE] = "WHILE",
		[RES_UNTIL] = "UNTIL",
		[RES_DO   ] = "DO"   ,
		[RES_DONE ] = "DONE" ,
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS || ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		[RES_IN   ] = "IN"   ,
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		[RES_CASE ] = "CASE" ,
		[RES_CASE_IN ] = "CASE_IN" ,
		[RES_MATCH] = "MATCH",
		[RES_CASE_BODY] = "CASE_BODY",
		[RES_ESAC ] = "ESAC" ,
# endif
		[RES_XXXX ] = "XXXX" ,
		[RES_SNTX ] = "SNTX" ,
	};
	static const char *const CMDTYPE[] = {
		"{}",
		"()",
		"[noglob]",
# if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
		"func()",
# endif
	};

	int pin, prn;

	pin = 0;
	while (pi) {
		fprintf(stderr, "%*spipe %d res_word=%s followup=%d %s\n", lvl*2, "",
				pin, RES[pi->res_word], pi->followup, PIPE[pi->followup]);
		prn = 0;
		while (prn < pi->num_cmds) {
			struct command *command = &pi->cmds[prn];
			char **argv = command->argv;

			fprintf(stderr, "%*s cmd %d assignment_cnt:%d",
					lvl*2, "", prn,
					command->assignment_cnt);
			if (command->group) {
				fprintf(stderr, " group %s: (argv=%p)%s%s\n",
						CMDTYPE[command->cmd_type],
						argv
# if !BB_MMU
						, " group_as_string:", command->group_as_string
# else
						, "", ""
# endif
				);
				debug_print_tree(command->group, lvl+1);
				prn++;
				continue;
			}
			if (argv) while (*argv) {
				fprintf(stderr, " '%s'", *argv);
				argv++;
			}
			fprintf(stderr, "\n");
			prn++;
		}
		pi = pi->next;
		pin++;
	}
}
#endif /* debug_print_tree */

/* NB: called by pseudo_exec, and therefore must not modify any
 * global data until exec/_exit (we can be a child after vfork!) */
static int run_list(struct pipe *pi)
{
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	char *case_word = NULL;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	struct pipe *loop_top = NULL;
	char **for_lcur = NULL;
	char **for_list = NULL;
#endif
	smallint last_followup;
	smalluint rcode;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_IF || ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	smalluint cond_code = 0;
#else
	enum { cond_code = 0 };
#endif
#if HAS_KEYWORDS
	smallint rword; /* enum reserved_style */
	smallint last_rword; /* ditto */
#endif

	debug_printf_exec("run_list start lvl %d\n", G.run_list_level);
	debug_enter();

#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	/* Check syntax for "for" */
	for (struct pipe *cpipe = pi; cpipe; cpipe = cpipe->next) {
		if (cpipe->res_word != RES_FOR && cpipe->res_word != RES_IN)
			continue;
		/* current word is FOR or IN (BOLD in comments below) */
		if (cpipe->next == NULL) {
			syntax_error("malformed for");
			debug_leave();
			debug_printf_exec("run_list lvl %d return 1\n", G.run_list_level);
			return 1;
		}
		/* "FOR v; do ..." and "for v IN a b; do..." are ok */
		if (cpipe->next->res_word == RES_DO)
			continue;
		/* next word is not "do". It must be "in" then ("FOR v in ...") */
		if (cpipe->res_word == RES_IN /* "for v IN a b; not_do..."? */
		 || cpipe->next->res_word != RES_IN /* FOR v not_do_and_not_in..."? */
		) {
			syntax_error("malformed for");
			debug_leave();
			debug_printf_exec("run_list lvl %d return 1\n", G.run_list_level);
			return 1;
		}
	}
#endif

	/* Past this point, all code paths should jump to ret: label
	 * in order to return, no direct "return" statements please.
	 * This helps to ensure that no memory is leaked. */

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	G.run_list_level++;
#endif

#if HAS_KEYWORDS
	rword = RES_NONE;
	last_rword = RES_XXXX;
#endif
	last_followup = PIPE_SEQ;
	rcode = G.last_exitcode;

	/* Go through list of pipes, (maybe) executing them. */
	for (; pi; pi = IF_HUSH_LOOPS(rword == RES_DONE ? loop_top : ) pi->next) {
		if (G.flag_SIGINT)
			break;

		IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(rword = pi->res_word;)
		debug_printf_exec(": rword=%d cond_code=%d last_rword=%d\n",
				rword, cond_code, last_rword);
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		if ((rword == RES_WHILE || rword == RES_UNTIL || rword == RES_FOR)
		 && loop_top == NULL /* avoid bumping G.depth_of_loop twice */
		) {
			/* start of a loop: remember where loop starts */
			loop_top = pi;
			G.depth_of_loop++;
		}
#endif
		/* Still in the same "if...", "then..." or "do..." branch? */
		if (IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(rword == last_rword &&) 1) {
			if ((rcode == 0 && last_followup == PIPE_OR)
			 || (rcode != 0 && last_followup == PIPE_AND)
			) {
				/* It is "<true> || CMD" or "<false> && CMD"
				 * and we should not execute CMD */
				debug_printf_exec("skipped cmd because of || or &&\n");
				last_followup = pi->followup;
				continue;
			}
		}
		last_followup = pi->followup;
		IF_HAS_KEYWORDS(last_rword = rword;)
#if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
		if (cond_code) {
			if (rword == RES_THEN) {
				/* if false; then ... fi has exitcode 0! */
				G.last_exitcode = rcode = EXIT_SUCCESS;
				/* "if <false> THEN cmd": skip cmd */
				continue;
			}
		} else {
			if (rword == RES_ELSE || rword == RES_ELIF) {
				/* "if <true> then ... ELSE/ELIF cmd":
				 * skip cmd and all following ones */
				break;
			}
		}
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		if (rword == RES_FOR) { /* && pi->num_cmds - always == 1 */
			if (!for_lcur) {
				/* first loop through for */

				static const char encoded_dollar_at[] ALIGN1 = {
					SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL, '@' | 0x80, SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL, '\0'
				}; /* encoded representation of "$@" */
				static const char *const encoded_dollar_at_argv[] = {
					encoded_dollar_at, NULL
				}; /* argv list with one element: "$@" */
				char **vals;

				vals = (char**)encoded_dollar_at_argv;
				if (pi->next->res_word == RES_IN) {
					/* if no variable values after "in" we skip "for" */
					if (!pi->next->cmds[0].argv) {
						G.last_exitcode = rcode = EXIT_SUCCESS;
						debug_printf_exec(": null FOR: exitcode EXIT_SUCCESS\n");
						break;
					}
					vals = pi->next->cmds[0].argv;
				} /* else: "for var; do..." -> assume "$@" list */
				/* create list of variable values */
				debug_print_strings("for_list made from", vals);
				for_list = expand_strvec_to_strvec(vals);
				for_lcur = for_list;
				debug_print_strings("for_list", for_list);
			}
			if (!*for_lcur) {
				/* "for" loop is over, clean up */
				free(for_list);
				for_list = NULL;
				for_lcur = NULL;
				break;
			}
			/* Insert next value from for_lcur */
			/* note: *for_lcur already has quotes removed, $var expanded, etc */
			set_local_var(xasprintf("%s=%s", pi->cmds[0].argv[0], *for_lcur++), /*exp:*/ 0, /*lvl:*/ 0, /*ro:*/ 0);
			continue;
		}
		if (rword == RES_IN) {
			continue; /* "for v IN list;..." - "in" has no cmds anyway */
		}
		if (rword == RES_DONE) {
			continue; /* "done" has no cmds too */
		}
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		if (rword == RES_CASE) {
			case_word = expand_strvec_to_string(pi->cmds->argv);
			continue;
		}
		if (rword == RES_MATCH) {
			char **argv;

			if (!case_word) /* "case ... matched_word) ... WORD)": we executed selected branch, stop */
				break;
			/* all prev words didn't match, does this one match? */
			argv = pi->cmds->argv;
			while (*argv) {
				char *pattern = expand_string_to_string(*argv);
				/* TODO: which FNM_xxx flags to use? */
				cond_code = (fnmatch(pattern, case_word, /*flags:*/ 0) != 0);
				free(pattern);
				if (cond_code == 0) { /* match! we will execute this branch */
					free(case_word); /* make future "word)" stop */
					case_word = NULL;
					break;
				}
				argv++;
			}
			continue;
		}
		if (rword == RES_CASE_BODY) { /* inside of a case branch */
			if (cond_code != 0)
				continue; /* not matched yet, skip this pipe */
		}
#endif
		/* Just pressing <enter> in shell should check for jobs.
		 * OTOH, in non-interactive shell this is useless
		 * and only leads to extra job checks */
		if (pi->num_cmds == 0) {
			if (G_interactive_fd)
				goto check_jobs_and_continue;
			continue;
		}

		/* After analyzing all keywords and conditions, we decided
		 * to execute this pipe. NB: have to do checkjobs(NULL)
		 * after run_pipe to collect any background children,
		 * even if list execution is to be stopped. */
		debug_printf_exec(": run_pipe with %d members\n", pi->num_cmds);
		{
			int r;
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
			G.flag_break_continue = 0;
#endif
			rcode = r = run_pipe(pi); /* NB: rcode is a smallint */
			if (r != -1) {
				/* We ran a builtin, function, or group.
				 * rcode is already known
				 * and we don't need to wait for anything. */
				G.last_exitcode = rcode;
				debug_printf_exec(": builtin/func exitcode %d\n", rcode);
				check_and_run_traps(0);
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
				/* Was it "break" or "continue"? */
				if (G.flag_break_continue) {
					smallint fbc = G.flag_break_continue;
					/* We might fall into outer *loop*,
					 * don't want to break it too */
					if (loop_top) {
						G.depth_break_continue--;
						if (G.depth_break_continue == 0)
							G.flag_break_continue = 0;
						/* else: e.g. "continue 2" should *break* once, *then* continue */
					} /* else: "while... do... { we are here (innermost list is not a loop!) };...done" */
					if (G.depth_break_continue != 0 || fbc == BC_BREAK)
						goto check_jobs_and_break;
					/* "continue": simulate end of loop */
					rword = RES_DONE;
					continue;
				}
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
				if (G.flag_return_in_progress == 1) {
					/* same as "goto check_jobs_and_break" */
					checkjobs(NULL);
					break;
				}
#endif
			} else if (pi->followup == PIPE_BG) {
				/* What does bash do with attempts to background builtins? */
				/* even bash 3.2 doesn't do that well with nested bg:
				 * try "{ { sleep 10; echo DEEP; } & echo HERE; } &".
				 * I'm NOT treating inner &'s as jobs */
				check_and_run_traps(0);
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
				if (G.run_list_level == 1)
					insert_bg_job(pi);
#endif
				G.last_exitcode = rcode = EXIT_SUCCESS;
				debug_printf_exec(": cmd&: exitcode EXIT_SUCCESS\n");
			} else {
#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
				if (G.run_list_level == 1 && G_interactive_fd) {
					/* Waits for completion, then fg's main shell */
					rcode = checkjobs_and_fg_shell(pi);
					debug_printf_exec(": checkjobs_and_fg_shell exitcode %d\n", rcode);
					check_and_run_traps(0);
				} else
#endif
				{ /* This one just waits for completion */
					rcode = checkjobs(pi);
					debug_printf_exec(": checkjobs exitcode %d\n", rcode);
					check_and_run_traps(0);
				}
				G.last_exitcode = rcode;
			}
		}

		/* Analyze how result affects subsequent commands */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
		if (rword == RES_IF || rword == RES_ELIF)
			cond_code = rcode;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		/* Beware of "while false; true; do ..."! */
		if (pi->next && pi->next->res_word == RES_DO) {
			if (rword == RES_WHILE) {
				if (rcode) {
					/* "while false; do...done" - exitcode 0 */
					G.last_exitcode = rcode = EXIT_SUCCESS;
					debug_printf_exec(": while expr is false: breaking (exitcode:EXIT_SUCCESS)\n");
					goto check_jobs_and_break;
				}
			}
			if (rword == RES_UNTIL) {
				if (!rcode) {
					debug_printf_exec(": until expr is true: breaking\n");
 check_jobs_and_break:
					checkjobs(NULL);
					break;
				}
			}
		}
#endif

 check_jobs_and_continue:
		checkjobs(NULL);
	} /* for (pi) */

#if ENABLE_HUSH_JOB
	G.run_list_level--;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	if (loop_top)
		G.depth_of_loop--;
	free(for_list);
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	free(case_word);
#endif
	debug_leave();
	debug_printf_exec("run_list lvl %d return %d\n", G.run_list_level + 1, rcode);
	return rcode;
}

/* Select which version we will use */
static int run_and_free_list(struct pipe *pi)
{
	int rcode = 0;
	debug_printf_exec("run_and_free_list entered\n");
	if (!G.n_mode) {
		debug_printf_exec(": run_list: 1st pipe with %d cmds\n", pi->num_cmds);
		rcode = run_list(pi);
	}
	/* free_pipe_list has the side effect of clearing memory.
	 * In the long run that function can be merged with run_list,
	 * but doing that now would hobble the debugging effort. */
	free_pipe_list(pi);
	debug_printf_exec("run_and_free_list return %d\n", rcode);
	return rcode;
}


static struct pipe *new_pipe(void)
{
	struct pipe *pi;
	pi = xzalloc(sizeof(struct pipe));
	/*pi->followup = 0; - deliberately invalid value */
	/*pi->res_word = RES_NONE; - RES_NONE is 0 anyway */
	return pi;
}

/* Command (member of a pipe) is complete, or we start a new pipe
 * if ctx->command is NULL.
 * No errors possible here.
 */
static int done_command(struct parse_context *ctx)
{
	/* The command is really already in the pipe structure, so
	 * advance the pipe counter and make a new, null command. */
	struct pipe *pi = ctx->pipe;
	struct command *command = ctx->command;

	if (command) {
		if (IS_NULL_CMD(command)) {
			debug_printf_parse("done_command: skipping null cmd, num_cmds=%d\n", pi->num_cmds);
			goto clear_and_ret;
		}
		pi->num_cmds++;
		debug_printf_parse("done_command: ++num_cmds=%d\n", pi->num_cmds);
		//debug_print_tree(ctx->list_head, 20);
	} else {
		debug_printf_parse("done_command: initializing, num_cmds=%d\n", pi->num_cmds);
	}

	/* Only real trickiness here is that the uncommitted
	 * command structure is not counted in pi->num_cmds. */
	pi->cmds = xrealloc(pi->cmds, sizeof(*pi->cmds) * (pi->num_cmds+1));
	ctx->command = command = &pi->cmds[pi->num_cmds];
 clear_and_ret:
	memset(command, 0, sizeof(*command));
	return pi->num_cmds; /* used only for 0/nonzero check */
}

static void done_pipe(struct parse_context *ctx, pipe_style type)
{
	int not_null;

	debug_printf_parse("done_pipe entered, followup %d\n", type);
	/* Close previous command */
	not_null = done_command(ctx);
	ctx->pipe->followup = type;
#if HAS_KEYWORDS
	ctx->pipe->pi_inverted = ctx->ctx_inverted;
	ctx->ctx_inverted = 0;
	ctx->pipe->res_word = ctx->ctx_res_w;
#endif

	/* Without this check, even just <enter> on command line generates
	 * tree of three NOPs (!). Which is harmless but annoying.
	 * IOW: it is safe to do it unconditionally. */
	if (not_null
#if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
	 || ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_FI
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	 || ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_DONE
	 || ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_FOR
	 || ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_IN
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	 || ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_ESAC
#endif
	) {
		struct pipe *new_p;
		debug_printf_parse("done_pipe: adding new pipe: "
				"not_null:%d ctx->ctx_res_w:%d\n",
				not_null, ctx->ctx_res_w);
		new_p = new_pipe();
		ctx->pipe->next = new_p;
		ctx->pipe = new_p;
		/* RES_THEN, RES_DO etc are "sticky" -
		 * they remain set for pipes inside if/while.
		 * This is used to control execution.
		 * RES_FOR and RES_IN are NOT sticky (needed to support
		 * cases where variable or value happens to match a keyword):
		 */
#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		if (ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_FOR
		 || ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_IN)
			ctx->ctx_res_w = RES_NONE;
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		if (ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_MATCH)
			ctx->ctx_res_w = RES_CASE_BODY;
		if (ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_CASE)
			ctx->ctx_res_w = RES_CASE_IN;
#endif
		ctx->command = NULL; /* trick done_command below */
		/* Create the memory for command, roughly:
		 * ctx->pipe->cmds = new struct command;
		 * ctx->command = &ctx->pipe->cmds[0];
		 */
		done_command(ctx);
		//debug_print_tree(ctx->list_head, 10);
	}
	debug_printf_parse("done_pipe return\n");
}

static void initialize_context(struct parse_context *ctx)
{
	memset(ctx, 0, sizeof(*ctx));
	ctx->pipe = ctx->list_head = new_pipe();
	/* Create the memory for command, roughly:
	 * ctx->pipe->cmds = new struct command;
	 * ctx->command = &ctx->pipe->cmds[0];
	 */
	done_command(ctx);
}

/* If a reserved word is found and processed, parse context is modified
 * and 1 is returned.
 */
#if HAS_KEYWORDS
struct reserved_combo {
	char literal[6];
	unsigned char res;
	unsigned char assignment_flag;
	int flag;
};
enum {
	FLAG_END   = (1 << RES_NONE ),
# if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
	FLAG_IF    = (1 << RES_IF   ),
	FLAG_THEN  = (1 << RES_THEN ),
	FLAG_ELIF  = (1 << RES_ELIF ),
	FLAG_ELSE  = (1 << RES_ELSE ),
	FLAG_FI    = (1 << RES_FI   ),
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	FLAG_FOR   = (1 << RES_FOR  ),
	FLAG_WHILE = (1 << RES_WHILE),
	FLAG_UNTIL = (1 << RES_UNTIL),
	FLAG_DO    = (1 << RES_DO   ),
	FLAG_DONE  = (1 << RES_DONE ),
	FLAG_IN    = (1 << RES_IN   ),
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	FLAG_MATCH = (1 << RES_MATCH),
	FLAG_ESAC  = (1 << RES_ESAC ),
# endif
	FLAG_START = (1 << RES_XXXX ),
};

static const struct reserved_combo* match_reserved_word(o_string *word)
{
	/* Mostly a list of accepted follow-up reserved words.
	 * FLAG_END means we are done with the sequence, and are ready
	 * to turn the compound list into a command.
	 * FLAG_START means the word must start a new compound list.
	 */
	static const struct reserved_combo reserved_list[] = {
# if ENABLE_HUSH_IF
		{ "!",     RES_NONE,  NOT_ASSIGNMENT , 0 },
		{ "if",    RES_IF,    WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_THEN | FLAG_START },
		{ "then",  RES_THEN,  WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_ELIF | FLAG_ELSE | FLAG_FI },
		{ "elif",  RES_ELIF,  WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_THEN },
		{ "else",  RES_ELSE,  WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_FI   },
		{ "fi",    RES_FI,    NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_END  },
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		{ "for",   RES_FOR,   NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_IN | FLAG_DO | FLAG_START },
		{ "while", RES_WHILE, WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_DO | FLAG_START },
		{ "until", RES_UNTIL, WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_DO | FLAG_START },
		{ "in",    RES_IN,    NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_DO   },
		{ "do",    RES_DO,    WORD_IS_KEYWORD, FLAG_DONE },
		{ "done",  RES_DONE,  NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_END  },
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		{ "case",  RES_CASE,  NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_MATCH | FLAG_START },
		{ "esac",  RES_ESAC,  NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_END  },
# endif
	};
	const struct reserved_combo *r;

	for (r = reserved_list;	r < reserved_list + ARRAY_SIZE(reserved_list); r++) {
		if (strcmp(word->data, r->literal) == 0)
			return r;
	}
	return NULL;
}
/* Return 0: not a keyword, 1: keyword
 */
static int reserved_word(o_string *word, struct parse_context *ctx)
{
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	static const struct reserved_combo reserved_match = {
		"",        RES_MATCH, NOT_ASSIGNMENT , FLAG_MATCH | FLAG_ESAC
	};
# endif
	const struct reserved_combo *r;

	if (word->o_quoted)
		return 0;
	r = match_reserved_word(word);
	if (!r)
		return 0;

	debug_printf("found reserved word %s, res %d\n", r->literal, r->res);
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	if (r->res == RES_IN && ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_CASE_IN) {
		/* "case word IN ..." - IN part starts first MATCH part */
		r = &reserved_match;
	} else
# endif
	if (r->flag == 0) { /* '!' */
		if (ctx->ctx_inverted) { /* bash doesn't accept '! ! true' */
			syntax_error("! ! command");
			ctx->ctx_res_w = RES_SNTX;
		}
		ctx->ctx_inverted = 1;
		return 1;
	}
	if (r->flag & FLAG_START) {
		struct parse_context *old;

		old = xmalloc(sizeof(*old));
		debug_printf_parse("push stack %p\n", old);
		*old = *ctx;   /* physical copy */
		initialize_context(ctx);
		ctx->stack = old;
	} else if (/*ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_NONE ||*/ !(ctx->old_flag & (1 << r->res))) {
		syntax_error_at(word->data);
		ctx->ctx_res_w = RES_SNTX;
		return 1;
	} else {
		/* "{...} fi" is ok. "{...} if" is not
		 * Example:
		 * if { echo foo; } then { echo bar; } fi */
		if (ctx->command->group)
			done_pipe(ctx, PIPE_SEQ);
	}

	ctx->ctx_res_w = r->res;
	ctx->old_flag = r->flag;
	word->o_assignment = r->assignment_flag;

	if (ctx->old_flag & FLAG_END) {
		struct parse_context *old;

		done_pipe(ctx, PIPE_SEQ);
		debug_printf_parse("pop stack %p\n", ctx->stack);
		old = ctx->stack;
		old->command->group = ctx->list_head;
		old->command->cmd_type = CMD_NORMAL;
# if !BB_MMU
		o_addstr(&old->as_string, ctx->as_string.data);
		o_free_unsafe(&ctx->as_string);
		old->command->group_as_string = xstrdup(old->as_string.data);
		debug_printf_parse("pop, remembering as:'%s'\n",
				old->command->group_as_string);
# endif
		*ctx = *old;   /* physical copy */
		free(old);
	}
	return 1;
}
#endif /* HAS_KEYWORDS */

/* Word is complete, look at it and update parsing context.
 * Normal return is 0. Syntax errors return 1.
 * Note: on return, word is reset, but not o_free'd!
 */
static int done_word(o_string *word, struct parse_context *ctx)
{
	struct command *command = ctx->command;

	debug_printf_parse("done_word entered: '%s' %p\n", word->data, command);
	if (word->length == 0 && word->o_quoted == 0) {
		debug_printf_parse("done_word return 0: true null, ignored\n");
		return 0;
	}

	if (ctx->pending_redirect) {
		/* We do not glob in e.g. >*.tmp case. bash seems to glob here
		 * only if run as "bash", not "sh" */
		/* http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/utilities/xcu_chap02.html
		 * "2.7 Redirection
		 * ...the word that follows the redirection operator
		 * shall be subjected to tilde expansion, parameter expansion,
		 * command substitution, arithmetic expansion, and quote
		 * removal. Pathname expansion shall not be performed
		 * on the word by a non-interactive shell; an interactive
		 * shell may perform it, but shall do so only when
		 * the expansion would result in one word."
		 */
		ctx->pending_redirect->rd_filename = xstrdup(word->data);
		/* Cater for >\file case:
		 * >\a creates file a; >\\a, >"\a", >"\\a" create file \a
		 * Same with heredocs:
		 * for <<\H delim is H; <<\\H, <<"\H", <<"\\H" - \H
		 */
		if (ctx->pending_redirect->rd_type == REDIRECT_HEREDOC) {
			unbackslash(ctx->pending_redirect->rd_filename);
			/* Is it <<"HEREDOC"? */
			if (word->o_quoted) {
				ctx->pending_redirect->rd_dup |= HEREDOC_QUOTED;
			}
		}
		debug_printf_parse("word stored in rd_filename: '%s'\n", word->data);
		ctx->pending_redirect = NULL;
	} else {
		/* If this word wasn't an assignment, next ones definitely
		 * can't be assignments. Even if they look like ones. */
		if (word->o_assignment != DEFINITELY_ASSIGNMENT
		 && word->o_assignment != WORD_IS_KEYWORD
		) {
			word->o_assignment = NOT_ASSIGNMENT;
		} else {
			if (word->o_assignment == DEFINITELY_ASSIGNMENT)
				command->assignment_cnt++;
			word->o_assignment = MAYBE_ASSIGNMENT;
		}

#if HAS_KEYWORDS
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		if (ctx->ctx_dsemicolon
		 && strcmp(word->data, "esac") != 0 /* not "... pattern) cmd;; esac" */
		) {
			/* already done when ctx_dsemicolon was set to 1: */
			/* ctx->ctx_res_w = RES_MATCH; */
			ctx->ctx_dsemicolon = 0;
		} else
# endif
		if (!command->argv /* if it's the first word... */
# if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
		 && ctx->ctx_res_w != RES_FOR /* ...not after FOR or IN */
		 && ctx->ctx_res_w != RES_IN
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
		 && ctx->ctx_res_w != RES_CASE
# endif
		) {
			debug_printf_parse("checking '%s' for reserved-ness\n", word->data);
			if (reserved_word(word, ctx)) {
				o_reset_to_empty_unquoted(word);
				debug_printf_parse("done_word return %d\n",
						(ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_SNTX));
				return (ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_SNTX);
			}
# ifdef CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND
			if (strcmp(word->data, "export") == 0
#  if ENABLE_HUSH_LOCAL
			 || strcmp(word->data, "local") == 0
#  endif
			) {
				command->cmd_type = CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB_COND;
			} else
# endif
# if ENABLE_HUSH_BASH_COMPAT
			if (strcmp(word->data, "[[") == 0) {
				command->cmd_type = CMD_SINGLEWORD_NOGLOB;
			}
			/* fall through */
# endif
		}
#endif
		if (command->group) {
			/* "{ echo foo; } echo bar" - bad */
			syntax_error_at(word->data);
			debug_printf_parse("done_word return 1: syntax error, "
					"groups and arglists don't mix\n");
			return 1;
		}
		if (word->o_quoted /* word had "xx" or 'xx' at least as part of it. */
		 /* optimization: and if it's ("" or '') or ($v... or `cmd`...): */
		 && (word->data[0] == '\0' || word->data[0] == SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL)
		 /* (otherwise it's known to be not empty and is already safe) */
		) {
			/* exclude "$@" - it can expand to no word despite "" */
			char *p = word->data;
			while (p[0] == SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL
			    && (p[1] & 0x7f) == '@'
			    && p[2] == SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL
			) {
				p += 3;
			}
			if (p == word->data || p[0] != '\0') {
				/* saw no "$@", or not only "$@" but some
				 * real text is there too */
				/* insert "empty variable" reference, this makes
				 * e.g. "", $empty"" etc to not disappear */
				o_addchr(word, SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL);
				o_addchr(word, SPECIAL_VAR_SYMBOL);
			}
		}
		command->argv = add_string_to_strings(command->argv, xstrdup(word->data));
		debug_print_strings("word appended to argv", command->argv);
	}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_LOOPS
	if (ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_FOR) {
		if (word->o_quoted
		 || !is_well_formed_var_name(command->argv[0], '\0')
		) {
			/* bash says just "not a valid identifier" */
			syntax_error("not a valid identifier in for");
			return 1;
		}
		/* Force FOR to have just one word (variable name) */
		/* NB: basically, this makes hush see "for v in ..."
		 * syntax as if it is "for v; in ...". FOR and IN become
		 * two pipe structs in parse tree. */
		done_pipe(ctx, PIPE_SEQ);
	}
#endif
#if ENABLE_HUSH_CASE
	/* Force CASE to have just one word */
	if (ctx->ctx_res_w == RES_CASE) {
		done_pipe(ctx, PIPE_SEQ);
	}
#endif

	o_reset_to_empty_unquoted(word);

	debug_printf_parse("done_word return 0\n");
	return 0;
}


/* Peek ahead in the input to find out if we have a "&n" construct,
 * as in "2>&1", that represents duplicating a file descriptor.
 * Return:
 * REDIRFD_CLOSE if >&- "close fd" construct is seen,
 * REDIRFD_SYNTAX_ERR if syntax error,
 * REDIRFD_TO_FILE if no & was seen,
 * or the number found.
 */
#if BB_MMU
#define parse_redir_right_fd(as_string, input) \
	parse_redir_right_fd(input)
#endif
static int parse_redir_right_fd(o_string *as_string, struct in_str *input)
{
	int ch, d, ok;

	ch = i_peek(input);
	if (ch != '&')
		return REDIRFD_TO_FILE;

	ch = i_getch(input);  /* get the & */
	nommu_addchr(as_string, ch);
	ch = i_peek(input);
	if (ch == '-') {
		ch = i_getch(input);
		nommu_addchr(as_string, ch);
		return REDIRFD_CLOSE;
	}
	d = 0;
	ok = 0;
	while (ch != EOF && isdigit(ch)) {
		d = d*10 + (ch-'0');
		ok = 1;
		ch = i_getch(input);
		nommu_addchr(as_string, ch);
		ch = i_peek(input);
	}
	if (ok) return d;

//TODO: this is the place to catch ">&file" bashism (redirect both fd 1 and 2)

	bb_error_msg("ambiguous redirect");
	return REDIRFD_SYNTAX_ERR;
}

/* Return code is 0 normal, 1 if a syntax error is detected
 */
static int parse_redirect(struct parse_context *ctx,
		int fd,
		redir_type style,
		struct in_str *input)
{
	struct command *command = ctx->command;
	struct redir_struct *redir;
	struct redir_struct **redirp;
	int dup_num;

	dup_num = REDIRFD_TO_FILE;
	if (style != REDIRECT_HEREDOC) {
		/* Check for a '>&1' type redirect */
		dup_num = parse_redir_right_fd(&ctx->as_string, input);
		if (dup_num == REDIRFD_SYNTAX_ERR)
			return 1;
	} else {
		int ch = i_peek(input);
		dup_num = (ch == '-'); /* HEREDOC_SKIPTABS bit is 1 */
		if (dup_num) { /* <<-... */
			ch = i_getch(input);
			nommu_addchr(&ctx->as_string, ch);
			ch = i_peek(input);
		}
	}

	if (style == REDIRECT_OVERWRITE && dup_num == REDIRFD_TO_FILE) {
		int ch = i_peek(input);
		if (ch == '|') {
			/* >|FILE redirect ("clobbering" >).
			 * Since we do not support "set -o noclobber" yet,
			 * >| and > are the same for now. Just eat |.
			 */
			ch = i_getch(input);
			nommu_addchr(&ctx->as_string, ch);
		}
	}

	/* Create a new redir_struct and append it to the linked list */
	redirp = &command->redirects;
	while ((redir = *redirp) != NULL) {
		redirp = &(redir->next);
	}
	*redirp = redir = xzalloc(sizeof(*redir));
	/* redir->next = NULL; */
	/* redir->rd_filename = NULL; */
	redir->rd_type = style;
	redir->rd_fd = (fd == -1) ? redir_table[style].default_fd : fd;

	debug_printf_parse("redirect type %d %s\n", redir->rd_fd,
				redir_table[style].descrip);

	redir->rd_dup = dup_num;
	if (style != REDIRECT_HEREDOC && dup_num != REDIRFD_TO_FILE) {
		/* Erik had a check here that the file descriptor in question
		 * is legit; I postpone that to "run time"
		 * A "-" representation of "close me" shows up as a -3 here */
		debug_printf_parse("duplicating redirect '%d>&%d'\n",
				redir->rd_fd, redir->rd_dup);
	} else {
		/* Set ctx->pending_redirect, so we know what to do at the
		 * end of the next parsed word. */
		ctx->pending_redirect = redir;
	}
	return 0;
}

/* If a redirect is immediately preceded by a number, that number is
 * supposed to tell which file descriptor to redirect.  This routine
 * looks for such preceding numbers.  In an ideal world this routine
 * needs to handle all the following classes of redirects...
 *     echo 2>foo     # redirects fd  2 to file "foo", nothing passed to echo
 *     echo 49>foo    # redirects fd 49 to file "foo", nothing passed to echo
 *     echo -2>foo    # redirects fd  1 to file "foo",    "-2" passed to echo
 *     echo 49x>foo   # redirects fd  1 to file "foo",   "49x" passed to echo
 *
 * http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/utilities/xcu_chap02.html
 * "2.7 Redirection
 * ... If n is quoted, the number shall not be recognized as part of
 * the redirection expression. For example:
 * echo \2>a
 * writes the character 2 into file a"
 * We are getting it right by setting ->o_quoted on any \<char>
 *
 * A -1 return means no valid number was found,
 * the caller should use the appropriate default for this redirection.
 */
static int redirect_opt_num(o_string *o)
{
	int num;

	if (o->data == NULL)
		return -1;
	num = bb_strtou(o->data, NULL, 10);
	if (errno || num < 0)
		return -1;
	o_reset_to_empty_unquoted(o);
	return num;
}

#if BB_MMU
#define fetch_till_str(as_string, input, word, skip_tabs) \
	fetch_till_str(input, word, skip_tabs)
#endif
static char *fetch_till_str(o_string *as_string,
		struct in_str *input,
		const char *word,
		int skip_tabs)
{
	o_string heredoc = NULL_O_STRING;
	int past_EOL = 0;
	int ch;

	goto jump_in;
	while (1) {
		ch = i_getch(input);
		nommu_addchr(as_string, ch);
		if (ch == '\n') {
			if (strcmp(heredoc.data + past_EOL, word) == 0) {
				heredoc.data[past_EOL] = '\0';
				debug_printf_parse("parsed heredoc '%s'\n", heredoc.data);
				return heredoc.data;
			}
			do {
				o_addchr(&heredoc, ch);
				past_EOL = heredoc.length;
 jump_in:
				do {
					ch = i_getch(input);
					nommu_addchr(as_string, ch);
				} while (skip_tabs && ch == '\t');
			} while (ch == '\n');
		}
		if (ch == EOF) {
			o_free_unsafe(&heredoc);
			return NULL;
		}
		o_addchr(&heredoc, ch);
		nommu_addchr(as_string, ch);
	}
}

/* Look at entire parse tree for not-yet-loaded REDIRECT_HEREDOCs
 * and load them all. There should be exactly heredoc_cnt of them.
 */
static int fetch_heredocs(int heredoc_cnt, struct parse_context *ctx, struct in_str *input)
{
	struct pipe *pi = ctx->list_head;

	while (pi && heredoc_cnt) {
		int i;
		struct command *cmd = pi->cmds;

		debug_printf_parse("fetch_heredocs: num_cmds:%d cmd argv0:'%s'\n",
				pi->num_cmds,
				cmd->argv ? cmd->argv[0] : "NONE");
		for (i = 0; i < pi->num_cmds; i++) {
			struct redir_struct *redir = cmd->redirects;

			debug_printf_parse("fetch_heredocs: %d cmd argv0:'%s'\n",
					i, cmd->argv ? cmd->argv[0] : "NONE");
			while (redir) {
				if (redir->rd_type == REDIRECT_HEREDOC) {
					char *p;

					redir->rd_type = REDIRECT_HEREDOC2;
					/* redir->rd_dup is (ab)used to indicate <<- */
					p = fetch_till_str(&ctx->as_string, input,
						redir->rd_filename, redir->rd_dup & HEREDOC_SKIPTABS);
					if (!p) {
						syntax_error("unexpected EOF in here document");
						return 1;
					}
					free(redir->rd_filename);
					redir->rd_filename = p;
					heredoc_cnt--;
				}
				redir = redir->next;
			}
			cmd++;
		}
		pi = pi->next;
	}
#if 0
	/* Should be 0. If it isn't, it's a parse error */
	if (heredoc_cnt)
		bb_error_msg_and_die("heredoc BUG 2");
#endif
	return 0;
}


#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK
static FILE *generate_stream_from_string(const char *s, pid_t *pid_p)
{
	pid_t pid;
	int channel[2];
# if !BB_MMU
	char **to_free = NULL;
# endif

	xpipe(channel);
	pid = BB_MMU ? xfork() : xvfork();
	if (pid == 0) { /* child */
		disable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit();
		/* Process substitution is not considered to be usual
		 * 'command execution'.
		 * SUSv3 says ctrl-Z should be ignored, ctrl-C should not.
		 */
		bb_signals(0
			+ (1 << SIGTSTP)
			+ (1 << SIGTTIN)
			+ (1 << SIGTTOU)
			, SIG_IGN);
		CLEAR_RANDOM_T(&G.random_gen); /* or else $RANDOM repeats in child */
		close(channel[0]); /* NB: close _first_, then move fd! */
		xmove_fd(channel[1], 1);
		/* Prevent it from trying to handle ctrl-z etc */
		IF_HUSH_JOB(G.run_list_level = 1;)
		/* Awful hack for `trap` or $(trap).
		 *
		 * http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/utilities/trap.html
		 * contains an example where "trap" is executed in a subshell:
		 *
		 * save_traps=$(trap)
		 * ...
		 * eval "$save_traps"
		 *
		 * Standard does not say that "trap" in subshell shall print
		 * parent shell's traps. It only says that its output
		 * must have suitable form, but then, in the above example
		 * (which is not supposed to be normative), it implies that.
		 *
		 * bash (and probably other shell) does implement it
		 * (traps are reset to defaults, but "trap" still shows them),
		 * but as a result, "trap" logic is hopelessly messed up:
		 *
		 * # trap
		 * trap -- 'echo Ho' SIGWINCH  <--- we have a handler
		 * # (trap)        <--- trap is in subshell - no output (correct, traps are reset)
		 * # true | trap   <--- trap is in subshell - no output (ditto)
		 * # echo `true | trap`    <--- in subshell - output (but traps are reset!)
		 * trap -- 'echo Ho' SIGWINCH
		 * # echo `(trap)`         <--- in subshell in subshell - output
		 * trap -- 'echo Ho' SIGWINCH
		 * # echo `true | (trap)`  <--- in subshell in subshell in subshell - output!
		 * trap -- 'echo Ho' SIGWINCH
		 *
		 * The rules when to forget and when to not forget traps
		 * get really complex and nonsensical.
		 *
		 * Our solution: ONLY bare $(trap) or `trap` is special.
		 */
		s = skip_whitespace(s);
		if (strncmp(s, "trap", 4) == 0 && (*skip_whitespace(s + 4) == '\0'))
		{
			static const char *const argv[] = { NULL, NULL };
			builtin_trap((char**)argv);
			exit(0); /* not _exit() - we need to fflush */
		}
# if BB_MMU
		reset_traps_to_defaults();
		parse_and_run_string(s);
		_exit(G.last_exitcode);
# else
	/* We re-execute after vfork on NOMMU. This makes this script safe:
	 * yes "0123456789012345678901234567890" | dd bs=32 count=64k >BIG
	 * huge=`cat BIG` # was blocking here forever
	 * echo OK
	 */
		re_execute_shell(&to_free,
				s,
				G.global_argv[0],
				G.global_argv + 1,
				NULL);
# endif
	}

	/* parent */
	*pid_p = pid;
# if ENABLE_HUSH_FAST
	G.count_SIGCHLD++;
//bb_error_msg("[%d] fork in generate_stream_from_string: G.count_SIGCHLD:%d G.handled_SIGCHLD:%d", getpid(), G.count_SIGCHLD, G.handled_SIGCHLD);
# endif
	enable_restore_tty_pgrp_on_exit();
# if !BB_MMU
	free(to_free);
# endif
	close(channel[1]);
	close_on_exec_on(channel[0]);
	return xfdopen_for_read(channel[0]);
}

/* Return code is exit status of the process that is run. */
static int process_command_subs(o_string *dest, const char *s)
{
	FILE *fp;
	struct in_str pipe_str;
	pid_t pid;
	int status, ch, eol_cnt;

	fp = generate_stream_from_string(s, &pid);

	/* Now send results of command back into original context */
	setup_file_in_str(&pipe_str, fp);
	eol_cnt = 0;
	while ((ch = i_getch(&pipe_str)) != EOF) {
		if (ch == '\n') {
			eol_cnt++;
			continue;
		}
		while (eol_cnt) {
			o_addchr(dest, '\n');
			eol_cnt--;
		}
		o_addQchr(dest, ch);
	}

	debug_printf("done reading from `cmd` pipe, closing it\n");
	fclose(fp);
	/* We need to extract exitcode. Test case
	 * "true; echo `sleep 1; false` $?"
	 * should print 1 */
	safe_waitpid(pid, &status, 0);
	debug_printf("child exited. returning its exitcode:%d\n", WEXITSTATUS(status));
	return WEXITSTATUS(status);
}
#endif /* ENABLE_HUSH_TICK */

#if !ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
#define parse_group(dest, ctx, input, ch) \
	parse_group(ctx, input, ch)
#endif
static int parse_group(o_string *dest, struct parse_context *ctx,
	struct in_str *input, int ch)
{
	/* dest contains characters seen prior to ( or {.
	 * Typically it's empty, but for function defs,
	 * it contains function name (without '()'). */
	struct pipe *pipe_list;
	int endch;
	struct command *command = ctx->command;

	debug_printf_parse("parse_group entered\n");
#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
	if (ch == '(' && !dest->o_quoted) {
		if (dest->length)
			if (done_word(dest, ctx))
				return 1;
		if (!command->argv)
			goto skip; /* (... */
		if (command->argv[1]) { /* word word ... (... */
			syntax_error_unexpected_ch('(');
			return 1;
		}
		/* it is "word(..." or "word (..." */
		do
			ch = i_getch(input);
		while (ch == ' ' || ch == '\t');
		if (ch != ')') {
			syntax_error_unexpected_ch(ch);
			return 1;
		}
		nommu_addchr(&ctx->as_string, ch);
		do
			ch = i_getch(input);
		while (ch == ' ' || ch == '\t' || ch == '\n');
		if (ch != '{') {
			syntax_error_unexpected_ch(ch);
			return 1;
		}
		nommu_addchr(&ctx->as_string, ch);
		command->cmd_type = CMD_FUNCDEF;
		goto skip;
	}
#endif

#if 0 /* Prevented by caller */
	if (command->argv /* word [word]{... */
	 || dest->length /* word{... */
	 || dest->o_quoted /* ""{... */
	) {
		syntax_error(NULL);
		debug_printf_parse("parse_group return 1: "
			"syntax error, groups and arglists don't mix\n");
		return 1;
	}
#endif

#if ENABLE_HUSH_FUNCTIONS
 skip:
#endif
	endch = '}';
	if (ch == '(') {
		endch = ')';
		command->cmd_type = CMD_SUBSHELL;
	} else {
		/* bash does not allow "{echo...", requires whitespace */
		ch = i_getch(input);
		if (ch != ' ' && ch != '\t' && ch != '\n') {
			syntax_error_unexpected_ch(ch);
			return 1;
		}
		nommu_addchr(&ctx->as_string, ch);
	}

	{
#if BB_MMU
# define as_string NULL
#else
		char *as_string = NULL;
#endif
		pipe_list = parse_stream(&as_string, input, endch);
#if !BB_MMU
		if (as_string)
			o_addstr(&ctx->as_string, as_string);
#endif
		/* empty ()/{} or parse error? */
		if (!pipe_list || pipe_list == ERR_PTR) {
			/* parse_stream already emitted error msg */
			if (!BB_MMU)
				free(as_string);
			debug_printf_parse("parse_group return 1: "
				"parse_stream returned %p\n", pipe_list);
			return 1;
		}
		command->group = pipe_list;
#if !BB_MMU
		as_string[strlen(as_string) - 1] = '\0'; /* plink ')' or '}' */
		command->group_as_string = as_string;
		debug_printf_parse("end of group, remembering as:'%s'\n",
				command->group_as_string);
#endif
#undef as_string
	}
	debug_printf_parse("parse_group return 0\n");
	return 0;
	/* command remains "open", available for possible redirects */
}

#if ENABLE_HUSH_TICK || ENABLE_SH_MATH_SUPPORT || ENABLE_HUSH_DOLLAR_OPS
/* Subroutines for copying $(...) and `...` things */
static void add_till_backquote(o_string *dest, struct in_str *input);
/* '...' */
static void add_till_single_quote(o_string *dest, struct in_str *input)
{
	while (1) {
		int ch = i_getch(input);
		if (ch == EOF) {
			syntax_error_unterm_ch('\'');
			/*xfunc_die(); - redundant */
		}
		if (ch == '\'')
			return;
		o_addchr(dest, ch);
	}
}
/* "...\"...`..`...." - do we need to handle "...$(..)..." too? */
static void add_till_double_quote(o_string *dest, struct in_str *input)
{
	while (1) {
		int ch = i_getch(input);
		if (ch == EOF) {
			syntax_error_unterm_ch('"');
			/*xfunc_die(); - redundant */
		}
		if (ch == '"')
			return;
		if (ch == '\\') {  /* \x. Copy both chars. */
			o_addchr(dest, ch);
			ch = i_getch(input);
		}
		o_addchr(dest, ch);
		if (ch == '`') {
			add_till_backquote(dest, input);
			o_addchr(dest, ch);
			continue;
		}
		//if (ch == '$') ...
	}
}
/* Process `cmd` - copy contents until "`" is seen. Complicated by
 * \` quoting.
 * "Within the backquoted style of command substitution, backslash
 * shall retain its literal meaning, except when followed by: '$', '`', or '\'.
 * The search for the matching backquote shall be satisfied by the first
 * backquote found without a preceding backslash; during this search,
 * if a non-escaped backquote is encountered within a shell comment,
 * a here-document, an embedded command substitution of the $(command)
 * form, or a quoted string, undefined results occur. A single-quoted
 * or double-quoted string that begins, but does not end, within the
 * "`...`" sequence produces undefined results."
 * Example                               Output
 * echo `echo '\'TEST\`echo ZZ\`BEST`    \TESTZZBEST
 */
static void add_till_backquote(o_string *dest, struct in_str *input)
{
	while (1) {
		int ch = i_getch(input);
		if (ch == EOF) {
			syntax_error_unterm_ch('`');
			/*xfunc_die(); - redundant */
		}
		if (ch == '`')
			return;
		if (ch == '\\'